PHYS1160 Essays 代写

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    PHYS1160 Essays
    Essays should be between 1500 and 2000 words. The word limit should include
    the text, figure captions, footnotes, but not the reference list (we are happy to see
    lots of references). You will lose marks for going more than 10% over the word
    The format of the essay is not specified. You are welcome to include section
    headings and pictures. However try to ensure that they help to illustrate the
    argument presented in the essay and are not mere adornment.
    Your essay should be written for a well informed but non-specialist audience. The
    style (not the format) used in popular science magazines such as Scientific
    American or New Scientist would be a suitable guide. Remember, you are not
    writing for experts, so if you use technical jargon you will need to explain it.
    Refrain from using formulae, but instead explain concepts in your own words.
    Essays are expected to show evidence of researching the topic beyond the
    material presented in the lectures and textbook. The sources you use (websites,
    journal articles, books) should be referenced. You should consistently use one of
    the standard reference styles. One style is to number references sequentially in
    the text and include a numbered list of references at the end of the essay. An
    alternative is to mark references in the text using author and date e.g (Sagan,
    1987) or Drake et al. (1965) and list references at the end of the essay in
    alphabetical order.
    If you use text from another source make it clear that it is a quote by placing it in
    quotation marks and giving the reference to the source. However, you should not
    make excessive use of quotes. The essay should be in your words and present
    your views on the subject, not just an account of what other have said. Using text
    from other sources without attribution is plagiarism and is not acceptable.
    Your essay will use the TurnItIn system for submission that includes an
    automatic test for plagiarism. Your submission will be checked against a large
    database of material and tested for matches. Make sure that what you submit is
    your own work and that any material from other sources is placed in quotation
    marks and the source cited. Copying material from the web (even if you
    subsequently make edits to it) is considered to be plagiarism and it is
    unacceptable. Read more on the plagiarism policy from
    TurnItIn is well designed to detect all plagiarism attempts!
    TurnItIn gives a similarity score that indicates the percentage of the submission
    matched to its database. While there may be legitimate reasons for matches
    (such as quotations and references) we tend to be suspicious if we see a score
    greater than about 30%.
    Essays will be graded on:
    o Degree of understanding of the topic (max. 6 marks)
    o Quality and depth of research (max. 6 marks)
    o Clarity of presentation (max. 6 marks)
    o Original and outstanding coverage of the topic (max. 2 marks)
    Submitting Essays
    Essays are due before midnight on Sunday January 24th (end of week 6). They
    should be submitted online through the submission box provided in the
    Assessments page on Moodle. You can submit it in a range of file formats (MS
    Word, WordPerfect, PDF, Postscript, HTML, RTF and plain text).
    Essay Topics — Choose one of the following
    1. Space Telescopes
    Explain why astronomers put telescopes in space. Describe in detail one space
    telescope that does not observe visible light and list its achievements. Discuss
    major discoveries that were possible with astronomical observations made from
    space and how they changed our understanding of Universe.
    2. The Earliest Evidence for Life
    Review the earliest evidence for life on Earth. What form does the evidence take
    and where is it found. Discuss the controversies relating to some of this evidence
    and give your conclusion on the earliest date at which we can be confident that
    life was present on Earth.
    3. Atmosphere Evolution on Rocky Planets
    Compare evolution of atmosphere on Earth, Venus and Mars, and explain
    differences in current atmospheric conditions on these planets. Describe how the
    Earth’s atmosphere helped life to originate, survive and develop, and how has life
    affected the atmosphere over time.
    4. Life in Extreme Conditions
    Explain what extremophile life forms are and where they are found on Earth. In
    view of what we have learnt about extremophiles discuss the possibility of
    extraterrestrial life in different places of our Solar system.
    5. Key Space Missions
    Choose ONE of the following space missions and give an account of the mission
    describing the challenges it had to overcome and the mission’s achievements.
    Describe in particular how it has influenced our understanding of the possibilities
    of past or present life in the solar system.
    o The Viking dual orbiter/lander mission to Mars.
    o The Galileo orbiter/probe mission to the Jupiter system.
    o The Cassini/Huygens mission to the Saturn system.
    o The Mars Exploration Rover mission (Spirit and Opportunity rovers).
    6. Exploration of Venus
    Describe the history of missions to Venus and their achievements. How did we
    learn about the thick atmosphere and high surface temperature of Venus and how
    did we map its surface? Should we consider Venus as a possible site for life in our
    Solar system?
    7. Rosetta Mission
    Explain why scientists study comets of the Solar system. Discuss the methods
    applied in such studies. Describe the Rosetta mission and argue its importance in
    understanding the history of our Solar system and development of life on Earth.
    8. Space Weather
    Our Sun is an active star. Describe different types of solar activity. Explain how
    we can measure it and discuss its effects on life and human technology. What
    strategies can be implemented to avoid damaging effects of solar activity?
    9. Inside stars
    Discuss internal composition of stars similar to our own Sun and compare it with
    composition of white dwarfs and neutron stars. Explain how helioseismology and
    solar neutrinos help to study interior of the Sun.
    10. Space mission to Pluto
    The “New Horizons” mission is on its way to explore the outer Solar System.
    Describe the objectives of the mission and important scientific instruments on the
    space probe. Discuss what we have learnt about Pluto after the closest approach
    to this dwarf planet. Explain how this mission helps us to understand the
    processes of formation and evolution of the planetary system.
    11. Formation of planetary systems
    Discuss the early ideas about the formation of our Solar system. Compare our
    solar system with other multi-planetary systems discovered in the last 20 years.
    Explain what we have learnt about formation of planets from these discoveries.
    Describe the concept of planetary migration.
    12. Kepler and TESS
    Compare the strategy and objectives of the NASA Kepler mission and the new
    planned TESS mission. Choose one extra solar planet detected by the Kepler
    mission and discuss its importance for our understanding of other solar systems.
    13. Habitability of Planets
    Explain what makes a planet habitable. In the context of currently known extra
    solar planetary systems discuss the likelihood of habitable planets in our Galactic
    neighbourhood. Describe some examples of recently discovered extra solar
    planets, which are suggested to be habitable and explain why.
    14. Role model astronomer/astrobiologist
    Science advances by efforts of large collective of collaborating people, but there
    are outstanding individuals that we all admire for their role in moving us forward in
    understanding our world. Choose your favourite astronomer or astrobiologist that
    you learnt about in studying this course, and describe their contribution to their
    field of research. Explain why this person inspired you personally.
    15. Dark Matter and Dark Energy
    Explain both concepts and the differences between them. Describe the
    observations that led to the hypothesis that dark matter is an important
    component of the Universe. Describe the suggested constituents of the dark
    16. The Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence
    Explain what is SETI and how it approaches the search for the ET. Explain why
    radio telescopes are particularly useful in such a search. If we make contact with
    an advanced extraterrestrial civilization discuss how likely it is that we will benefit
    from the encounter through, for example, the information they may provide on
    advanced technologies, or are we likely to suffer through the hostility of a species
    that competes for our resources and perhaps our planet? Based on your
    assessment should we be advertising our presence by sending messages to the
    stars or would we be better keeping quiet?
    Factors you may wish to consider could include:
    o Do we expect advanced intelligent species to be friendly or hostile to
    other species (based on evolutionary theory, and the requirements of
    survival of such a species)?
    o Has the human race developed more or less tolerance of different
    peoples and cultures as civilization has developed?
    o The historical record of encounters between colonial and indigenous
    peoples on Earth.
    o Our record of treatment of closely related species such as the great apes.
    o The vast distances between stars and the difficulty of physical contact
    with extraterrestrial neighbours.