Trinity College History of Ideas 代写

  • 100%原创包过,高质量代写&免费提供Turnitin报告--24小时客服QQ&微信:273427
  • August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1
    Page 1 of 17
    History of Ideas
    August Main Intake 2015/2016 Second Essay
    1500 words, 30%
    Due date: Thursday 18 February 2016
    If the essay is more than10% above the word count this will be taken into account
    when determiningthe grade of the essay. The bibliography and references in brackets
    are notincluded in the wordcount. The essay must be based on the recommended
    reading (both primary source extracts and secondary sources).
    *Any materials used which are not on the recommended reading list must be
    uploaded in electronic form, with parts used highlighted. Please do notuse non-
    English language sources.
    Note: Wherethere is doubt about the authorship of the essay, the student will be
    required to sit the final exam and will not have the option to select Ordinary Level
    Question One:
    Compare Lotario dei Segni's and Pico della Mirandola’s views of human nature.
    Which authordoyou think has the better understanding of the nature of human beings?
    (Use both primary and secondary sources to support your answer.)
    (Wherepage numbers are indicated, these are the most important sections, but you
    may also find useful material on other pages, depending on your approach and needs.
    Where page numbersare not indicated, there are sections throughout the book which
    may be useful, depending on your approach and needs.)
    Primary Sources
    Theseprimary source extracts are provided onthe following pages:
    Lotario dei Segni 2015, The Misery ofthe Human Condition, Trinity College
    Foundation Studies,Melbourne.
    Pico della Mirandola 2015, On The Dignity of Man, TrinityCollege Foundation
    Studies, Melbourne.
    Noteon page numbers: Where these are indicated, these are the most important
    sections, butyoumay also find useful material on other pages, depending on your
    approach and needs. Where page numbers are not indicated, there are sections
    throughout the book which may be useful, depending on your approach and needs.
    Noteon eBooks: where available, eBooks at the Leeper library can be obtained by
    searching its catalogue. An eBook willremain on your computer or iPad for the
    August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1
    Page 2 of 17
    duration of the loan period. To print material from an eBook open the eBook via the
    catalogue. This will take you into a screen entitled ‘EBL’. There is a print icon at the
    top of the screen. If you click on this, you willbe prompted to create a loan. Once this
    is done, a print screenappears. You will now be able to print pages from the book.
    Standard copyright restrictions apply.
    The following secondary sources have been placed on reserve at both the Baillieu
    and Leeper libraries:
    Brotton, J 2006, The Renaissance: A very short introduction, OxfordUniversity Press,
    New York.
    Recommendedpages: 39-41, 112-113.
    Brown, A 1999, The Renaissance, Longman Press, London.
    Recommendedpages: 62-64.
    Burke, P1997,TheRenaissance,Macmillian Press, London.
    Recommendedpages: 12-22.
    Cantor, N (ed) 1999, The Pimlico encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, Pimlico, London.
    Hale, J 2000, Renaissance Europe 1480-1520, Blackwell, Oxford.
    Recommendedpages: 226-231.
    Nauert, C 1995, Humanism and the culture of the Renaissance. Cambridge University
    Press, Cambridge.
    Recommendedpages: 55-68; or 2 nd edition, 63-76.
    Perry, M et al.2013,Western civilization: ideas, politics & society, Houghton Mifflin,
    Recommendedpages: 257-259, 299-301.
    Tarnas, R 1996, The passion of the western mind: understanding the ideasthat have
    shaped our world view. Pimlico,London.
    Recommendedpages: 143-148 166-168, 214-215.
    Note: although most ofthis reading is about the early Christian thinker Augustine
    (AD 354-430) , his writings formed part of the basis of later Christian viewpoints.
    The following secondary source has been placed onreserve only at the Baillieu
    Le Goff, J 1990, The medieval world, Collins and Brown, London.
    Recommendedpages: 3-9, 28-29.
    PDF versions of partsof the following books areavailable at theLeeperlibrary
    and can be obtained by searchingitscatalogue, which is accessible via the
    Trinity portal on the internet in any location. Please do not printHOI materials
    in the library:use the Trinity computer labs for printing.
    August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1
    Page 3 of 17
    Cantor, N (ed) 1999, The Pimlico encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, Pimlico, London.
    Page: 240.
    Le Goff, J 1990, The medieval world, Collins and Brown, London.
    Pages: 3-9, 28-29.
    McBrien, R 1997, Lives of the popes:the pontiffs from St. Peter to John Paul II.
    Harper, San Francisco.
    Pages: 209-211.
    Miller,P 1998, ‘Introduction’, in Pico della Mirandola, On the dignity of man.
    Hackett, Indianapolis.
    Pages: vii-xvii.
    Nauert, C 1995, Humanism and the Cultureof theRenaissance.Cambridge
    University Press, Cambridge.
    Pages: 55-68.
    Ralph, P, Lerner, R, Meacham, S, Wood, A, Hull, R, and Burns, E 1997, World
    civilizations, Norton, New York.
    Pages: 465-468.
    August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1
    Page 4 of 17
    History of Ideas Essay:COLLUSION and PLAGIARISM
    Any academic essay MUST be your own independent workfrom start to end.
    Using other people’s ideas, words, or work is cheatingand is an academic crime.
    Trinity College (and the University of Melbourne) regards cheating very seriously, and
    any collusion or plagiarism will be severely penalised.
    You must work independently onyour essays. You must notworkout yourideas or
    essay plans with friends.You must write your essay yourself, without substantial help
    from others. You must notuse anyone else’s essay plan, materials, draft, computer disk,
    or work of any kind, to help you write your essay. This is called“collusion”.
    You must not help anybody cheat by providing her/him with an essay plan, materials,
    draft, computer disk, or work of any kind, to help her/him write her/hisessay. This is
    also collusion.
    Be particularly careful not to allow anyone access to your computer, and do not leave
    essay drafts on the hard disk of any computer used by others, or in any publicplace. It is
    your responsibility to take all reasonable steps to ensure that nobody can access or copy
    your work.If someonecopies your essay you will also be penalised.
    If two essays are found to be substantially the same in content, organisationand words,
    the essays of BOTH students will be disregarded and BOTH will be required to sit
    a special exam.
    Using someone else’s words or ideaswithout proper acknowledgement is
    considered an academic crime, and is called “plagiarism”.
    Ifyou use the ideas or information from a book or internet site you should express
    them in your own words and providea reference.You must not simply rearrange a
    sentence or substitute synonyms. Using sentencesin your essay which are too close to
    those in the secondary source is considered plagiarism.
    If you use words or sentences from a book or internet site, you must always use both
    quotation marks and a reference. Using someone else’s words without quotation marks
    is considered plagiarism.
    When you use any ideas or information from a book or internet site,whetheryou use
    your own words or quote, you must give areference. Failure to use a reference is
    Using words without quotation marks or not referencing is considered plagiarism
    (stealing) and will be penalised. An essaywith substantial plagiarism will
    automatically fail.
    August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1
    Page 5 of 17
    Introduction and notes to Lotario dei Segni The Misery of theHuman Condition
    by John Buttrose (2015) 1
    Lotario dei Segni (c. 1160 - 1216) 2 was born into an aristocratic family with
    close connections to thepapal court. He was well educated, and a man of
    outstanding ability. He had already reached the position of cardinal-deacon, a
    very high rank in the church, by the age of 30. The Misery of the Human
    Conditionwas written in 1195, and soon it became popular and influential. It
    reflectsa set of Christian attitudes which had developed on the basis of the
    early Christian writer St Augustine, and it was possibly written particularly to
    criticise corruptpriests.Lotario became pope in 1198, taking the name of
    Pope Innocent III. He becameone of the most important popes of the Middle
    Ages, initiating crusading wars against heretics in Europe and Muslims in the
    Middle East, discriminatory policies against Jews, and asserting the political
    powerof the pope overEuropean rulers.
    Extracts from Lotario dei Segni The Miseryof the Human Condition (1195) 3
    Adapted for TCFS use from dei Segni, L 1978, De miseria condicionis humane, ed. R Lewis,
    University of Georgia Press, Athens. The section numbers used in this extract follow the standard
    system of numbering used in Lotario dei Segni The Misery of the Human Condition.
    Lotario, unworthy cardinal-deacon, prays for Grace 4 in the present and glory in the
    future. 5
    I:1 Of the Misery of Man
    Why did I come outof my mother’s womb to see labour and sorrow and that my days
    should be spent inconfusion? … My mother, why did you bear me, the son of
    bitterness and sorrow?Why did I not die in the womb? Having come out of the belly,
    why didI not perish at once? Why received upon the knees, suckled at the breasts,
    when Iwas born for burning and for fuel for the fire? 6 Who therefore will give my
    1 Please read the introduction and footnotes given in this extract carefully, as they are provided to assist
    your understanding. However, it is not recommended that you directly cite them as a secondarysource
    in your essay. If forany reason you need to do so, follow the format provided in the EAP referencing
    2 Sometimes you will find the name spelt as “Lothario”; “dei Segni” means “of Segni”, the nearest
    town to his birthplace, and is not his personal name.
    3 Refer to this extract in your essay as (Lotario The Misery of the Human Condition Ex I:1). Change
    the section number according to the one you are using, or use the title Preface, as appropriate. List in
    the bibliography as: Lotario dei Segni 2015, The misery of the human condition extract, Trinity College
    FoundationStudies, Melbourne.
    4 According to Christian theology, Grace is the undeserved forgiveness by God of human sin, allowing
    humans – who can never be without sin – to enter Heaven.
    5 Lotario is talking about attaining the ‘glory’ oflife in Heaven, not glory in this earthly life.
    6 According to the Christian doctrine of ‘original sin’, human beings are born sinful, due to the sin of
    Adam and Eve (the first humans, according to the Bible story), who disobeyed God by eating the fruit
    in the Garden of Eden which God had forbidden them to eat. “The fire” refers tothe Medieval
    Christian belief that without the saving Grave of God and the help of the Church, sinful humans would
    be burned forever in Hell, a place of eternal punishment.
    August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1
    Page 6 of 17
    eyes a fountain of tears so that I may weep at the miserable beginnings of the human
    condition, theculpable progress of human behaviour, the damnable ending of human
    dissoluteness. With tears Imight consider what man is made of, what man does, what
    man will be. Man is indeed formed from earth, conceived in sin, born to pain. He does
    depraved things which are unlawful, shameful things that are indecent, vain things
    thatare unprofitable. He becomes fuel for the fire, food for the worms, a mass of
    putridness. … Man is formedof dust,of clay,of ashes: what is more vile, from the
    filthiest sperm.He is conceived in the heat of desire, the fervour of the flesh, in the
    stench of lust: what is worse in the blemish of sin. He is born to labour, fear, sorrow:
    what is more miserable, to death…He will become fuel for the inextinguishable fire
    thatalways flames and burns: food for the immortal worm that always eats and
    consumes; a mass ofhorrible putridness that always stinks and isfilthy.
    I:2 Of the Vilenessof Matter
    The LordGod formed man of the slime of the earth, which is inferior to other
    elements. He made the planets and the stars from fire, made the breezes and the winds
    from air,made the fish and the birds from water, made men and beasts from earth. 7 If
    man therefore considers the creatures of the water, he will discover that he is vile; if
    he considers the things of the air,he willknow that he is more vile; if he considers the
    things of fire, he will consider heis most vile. He will neither be able to make himself
    equal to the starsnor dare to prefer himself to earthly things, because he will discover
    he is equal to the beasts.
    I:3 Of the Flaw ofConception
    …Who does not know that copulation,even within marriage, is never performed
    without the heat of desire, without the fervour of the flesh, without the stench of lust?
    Because of this the conceived seeds are made filthy, defiled, and spoiled, from which
    seeds the soul ultimately imparted contracts the blemish of sin, the stain of guilt, the
    filth ofiniquity, just as an infused liquid is spoiled by a tainted vessel. For the soul
    has three natural powersor three natural forces: the rational to distinguish between
    goodand evil, the irascible to reject evil, the appetitive to desire good. These powers
    are originally corrupted by three opposite vices: the rational force by ignorance, so
    thatit cannot distinguish between good and evil; the irascible force by anger, so that it
    rejects good; the appetitive force by lust, so that it desires evil. … These three vices
    are contracted from the corrupt flesh through three fleshly enticements. For in fleshly
    intercourse the clarity of reason is lulled to sleep, so that ignorance is begotten; the
    heat ofdesire is stimulated, so that anger is propagated; the desire for pleasure is
    satiated so that lust is produced. This is the tyrant of the flesh, the law of the bodily
    parts, the wood which lights afire of sin, the weakness of nature, the nourishment of
    death, without which no one is born, without which no one dies.
    I:9 Of the Discomforts of Old Age
    7 Lotario refers to the beliefthat all matter is made from thefour elements of Air, Fire, Water and Earth.
    Earth was the lowest of all the elements. The belief originated with the Greek philosopher Empedocles,
    and was used by Plato and Aristotle and by medieval thinkers, based on their writings.
    August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1
    Page 7 of 17
    In the beginning of the human condition men are reported to have lived nine hundred
    years or more 8 . But as the life of man gradually decreased, God saidto Noah, “My
    spirit shall not remainin manforever because he is flesh, and his days shall be one
    hundred and twenty years.”Rarely since then are men reported to have lived longer,
    but because human lifewas shortened more and more, it was said by the psalmist,
    “Thedays of ouryears in themselves are threescore and ten years – if, however, in the
    strong,fourscore years: most of them are labour and sorrow.” 9 … Few now reach
    forty years, very few sixty. If, however, one does reach old age, his heart weakens
    straightaway and his head shakes, his spiritfails and his breath stinks, his face
    wrinkles and his back bends, his eyes dim and his joints falter, his nose runs and his
    hair falls out, his touch trembles and hiscompetence fails, his teeth rot and his ears
    become dirty.An oldman is provoked easilyand restrained with difficulty, believes
    quicklyand disbelieves slowly, is stingy and greedy, dejected and complaining, quick
    to speak andslow to listen, but is not slow to anger; he praises the things old and
    spurns modern things, disparages the present and commends the past, sighs and is
    anxious, is tormented and enfeebled. … But an old man should not be angry with the
    youngperson northe young person be insolentto theold person, for we are what he
    was, andsomeday will be whathe is.
    I:19 Of the Prison of the Soul
    Of course he who does not wish to escape from the body does not wish to escape from
    prison,for the prison of the soul is thebody. 10 Of this the psalmist says, “Bring my
    soul out of prison that I may praise thyname.” Nowhere is there quiet and tranquillity,
    nowhere peace and security; everywhere is fear and trembling, everywhere labour and
    I:22 Of the Proximity of Death
    The last day is always the first, and the first day is never thought to be the last,
    althoughit is nevertheless appropriate to live as if it might always be necessary to die.
    It is written, “Remember that death is not slow.” Time passes, and death
    approaches.…For the futureis always being born, the present is always dying,
    whatever is past is utterly dead. We are therefore always dying while we are alive, we
    only stop dying at such a timeas westop living.It is better to die for life than to live
    for death, becausemortal life is nothing but a living death. Life flees quietly and
    cannot be detained; but death attacks vehemently and is unable to be checked. The
    miracleis this; that life decreases by as much as it increases, because it moves near to
    death by asmuch as it moves forward.
    I:24 Of Compassion
    This refers to stories in the Bible of people who lived many hundreds of years.
    Lotario refers to the Bible story of Noah andthe Flood and to the section of the Bible known as the
    Book of Psalms. The 150 psalms (or poems) were thought to have been written by oneperson whom
    he calls “the psalmist”. A ‘score’ means 20 years, so “threescore and ten” means 70 years, and
    “fourscore” means 80 years.
    10 Thesoul was seen as the true essence of a person. The idea that the immortal soul was separate from
    the body was a very old one, as was the idea that the mortal body imprisoned the soul temporarily.
    August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1
    Page 8 of 17
    Oh withhow much sorrow are we troubled, with how much trembling we are
    disturbed,when we observethe injury of friends, when we fear the danger of relatives!
    Sometimes a healthy personis more troubled by fear than a sick person by illness.
    The former is moredistressed by the feeling of anguish of his own free will than the
    latter is by the result ofinfirmity against his will. … Whose heart is so hard that he
    does not sigh, does not shed tears, when he looks upon the sickness or death of a
    neighbour or friend, that he does not feel pity for the one who suffers and suffer with
    those who are in pain?…But he who weeps for the corporeal death of his friend and
    does not weep for the spiritual death of his soul should understand that he is culpably
    stubbornand stubbornly culpable. 11
    I:25 That there are Countless Kinds of Sickness
    Medical activity through the ages has not been able to investigate as many kinds of
    sickness, as many species of suffering, as human frailty can tolerate. … it is
    intolerable because of the severity of the suffering and tolerable because of the
    necessity ofsuffering. From day today human nature is corrupted more and more, so
    much so that many things were formerly healthy experiences that are today deadly
    things because of the failings ofhuman nature itself. Each world has already grown
    old … and the longerold age is extended, the more severely the nature of each is
    disturbed. 12
    I:26 Of Sudden Misfortunes
    Suddenly, when itis not suspected, misfortune strikes, calamity rushes in, disease
    invades, death, which no one escapes, snatches away. Therefore, boast not for
    tomorrow; for you do not know what the dayto come may bring forth. Man does not
    know his own end, but as fish are taken with the hook, and as birds are caught with
    the snare, so men are taken in the evil time when it shall suddenly come upon them.
    I:27 Of Various Kinds of Torments
    What may I say about themiserable people who are destroyed by countless kinds of
    torments? Theyare beaten with clubs and slain with swords, burned with flames and
    overwhelmed with stones, torn to pieces with claws and suspended with yokes,
    tortured with nails and whipped withscorpions, restrained with chains and bruised by
    fetters,subdued by prisons and made thin by fasting, thrown down and submerged,
    flayedand torn apart, cut up and pierced through. … Cruel judgement, monstrous
    punishment, sadspectacle!They are given as food to the birds in the sky, beasts of the
    earthand fish of thesea. Alas, alas, alas, miserable mothers, who have borne such
    unhappy children.
    Men are accustomed to strive for three things in particular: riches, pleasures and
    honours. From riches come perverse things, from pleasures shameful things, from
    11 “Corporeal” death refers tothe death of the physical body. Lotario says we should be more
    concerned with the fateof the human soul, not the body.
    12 Thesickness of individual people is used here as a metaphor for the sickness and corruption of the
    world itself.
    August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1
    Page 9 of 17
    honours vain things. Hence John the Apostle says: “love not the world, nor the things
    which are in the world,for whatever is in the world is the concupiscence 13 of the flesh
    and the concupiscence of the eyes and the pride of life.” 14 The concupiscence of the
    flesh pertains to pleasure, the concupiscence of the eyes to riches, and pride of life to
    honours. Riches engender covetousness and avarice, pleasures bring forward gluttony
    and lechery, honours nourish pride 15 andboasting.
    II:21 Of lust
    The foul motherproduces a fouler daughter. They are all adulterers, like an oven
    heated by the baker. The extreme foulness of desire, which not only weakens, but
    debilitates the body; not only defiles the soul, butpollutes the person. A man who
    commits fornication, sins against his own body. Desire and wantonness always
    precede it, stench and filth always attend, sorrow and repentance always follow. For
    the lips ofa harlot arelikehoneycomb dropping, and her throat is smoother than oil;
    but her endis asbitter as wormwoodand sharp as a two edged sword.
    II:41 That no one may boastabout himself
    There isnoone who can boast about the purity of his heart, because in many things
    we all offend, and if wesay we have no sin, we deceive ourselves and the truth is not
    in us. … God repented that he had made man on earth, seeing the wickedness of men
    was great on the earth and that all the thought of man’s heart was bent on evil at every
    opportunity, and therefore, being touched inwardly with sorrow of heart, destroyed
    man whom he had created. 16 Moreover wickedness has flourished, and the charity of
    many has grown cold. … Nearly the whole life of mortals is filled with mortal sins, 17
    so that hardly anyone can be found who does not stray towards evil, who does not
    return to his vomit, who does notrot in his own dung, whereas they boast when they
    have done evil and rejoice in most wicked things. This world … abounds with
    heretics, schismatics 18 , traitors, tyrants, simoniacs 19 , hypocrites, the ambitious, the
    covetous, robbers, plunderers, theviolent, extortioners, usurers, forgers, the ungodly,
    the sacrilegious,betrayers, liars, flatterers, deceivers, babblers, the crafty, gluttons,
    drunkards,adulterers, the incestuous, the effeminate, the impure, the lazy, the
    negligent, the vain, the wasteful, the impetuous, the angry, the impatient, the
    inconstant, sorcerers, soothsayers, perjurers, those who blind, the presumptuous, the
    arrogant, the unbelieving, the desperate, finally those caught in all the vices combined.
    13 Concupiscencemeans sensualappetite: i.e., lust.
    John was an ‘apostle’: i.e., a companion of Jesus. Lotariois referring toa section of the New
    Testament of the Bible.
    Pride is one of the seven‘deadly’ sins: i.e., those which lead humans to commit other sins. From
    the early Christian period, these seven sins were defined as Lust, Greed, Gluttony, Envy, Anger, Pride
    and Sloth (Laziness).
    16 Lotario is again referring to the Bible story of Noah. According to this story, God destroyed every
    living thing on the earth, except Noah, his family andthe animals carried in Noah’s Ark, because He
    could see only wickedness and sin among the people.
    17 A mortal is a person. To be mortal means that one dies. A mortal sin is a deliberate and serious
    breaking of God’s law. The soul of a person guilty of a mortal sin could no longer be received in
    18 A schismatic is one who causes divisions within the Church over matters of doctrine and belief.
    19 A simoniac is one who is guilty of buying or selling positions in the Church.
    August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1
    Page 10 of 17
    But as smoke vanishes they shall vanish, as the wax melts before the fire, so shall the
    wicked perish.
    III:1Of the rottenness of corpses
    How many and how great the thingsmortalsplan on account of the uncertainty of
    worldly foreknowledge, but at the moment of sudden death the things they had
    planned suddenly disappear. … Therefore the spirit does not go forth willing, but
    unwilling, becauseit gives up with sorrow what it possessed with love, and whether it
    wishes or not, a limit hasbeen setfor it that cannot be gone beyond, at which earth
    shall return to earth. … Certainly it isnatural that something made of matter should
    be dissolved into matter. … How foul is the father, how vile the mother, how
    abominable the sister! For man is conceived of blood; made rotten by the fire of lust;
    in theend worms stand by his body like mourners. Alive, he brings forth lice and
    tapeworms; dead hewill beget worms and flies. Alive he produces dung and vomit;
    dead he produces rottennessand stench. Alive, he fattens one man; dead, he will
    fatten manyworms. What, then, is more foul smelling than a human corpse? What
    more horrible than a dead man? … What good therefore are riches? What good
    sumptuous food? What good delicacies? They will not free from death, will not
    defend from the worm, will not take away the stench.
    III:16That nothing shall benefitthe damned
    The riches willnot benefit, nor honours protect, nor friends support. For it is written:
    “Their silver and gold shall not be able to deliver them on the day of the wrath of the
    Lord.” 20 The kings of the earth shall weep and wail when they see the smoke of the
    burning, for fear of its torments. “The soul that sins, the same shall die.” Severe
    judgement, inwhich not onlyof deeds, but of every idle word that men have spoken,
    shall render an account, in which the debt will be extracted with interest up to the last
    farthing. 21 Who therefore will be able to flee from the wrath to come? Therefore the
    Son of Man 22 shall send his angels, and they shall gather out of his kingdom all
    scandals and them that work iniquity; theyshall bind them in bundles for burning, and
    shall cast them intothe furnace of glowing fire. 23 There shall be weeping and
    moaning,wailingand shrieking, grief andtorment, gnashing and shouting, fear and
    trembling, labour and pain, fireand stench, darkness and anxiety, anguish and
    harshness, calamity and want, distress and sorrow, oblivion and confusion, tortures
    and pains, bitterness and terrors, hunger and thirst, cold and heat, brimstone and fire
    burning foreverand ever.
    Here ends thebookof the Misery of the Human Condition, by Lotario, Cardinal-
    Deacon of Saint Sergius and Bachius, who was afterwards called Pope Innocent the
    20 Lotario is referring to Judgement Day. Accordingto Judaeo-Christian theology, this is the day at the
    end of the world when souls are judged by God as to whether they are worthy ofa place in Heaven.
    21 A farthing is a very small coin of little value.
    22 Thephrase “Sonof man” refers to Jesus.
    23 Lotario is referring to Hell,a place of eternal torment for the soul who sins.
    August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1
    Page 11 of 17
    Introduction and notes to Pico dellaMirandola On The Dignityof Man by Tamar
    Lewit (2015)
    Giovanni Pico della Mirandola 25 (1463-1494) wasa wealthy Italian nobleman
    educated atthe universities of Bologna, Ferrara and Padua. He also studied
    the languages of Greek, Hebrew and Arabic, and both Arabic philosophy and
    Jewish mystical traditions. In 1484, he visited the Platonic Academy led by
    Marsilio Ficino in Florence, and became much influenced by Platonic and
    Neo-Platonicideas. His styleof thinking is often called ‘syncretism’, because
    he believed that truth could be found in all types of philosophy and theology,
    and tried to combine ancient pagan and philosophical ideas with Persian,
    Islamic, Jewish, and Christian Scholastic ideas. He presented this viewpoint in
    900 ‘Theses’ (arguments), towhich On The Dignity of Man was the
    introduction. He intended topresent these arguments for public ‘disputation’ in
    Rome. Public debates (‘disputes’ or ‘disputations’) in Latin were an important
    partof university and scholarly activity at the time. Professors debated the
    conclusionsreached in their lectures with their students, rather like a lecture
    and tutorial format today. In public disputations, the speaker was expected to
    debate thetopic with those who attended, and skill in debating was much
    admired. However, Pico’s proposed dispute was forbidden and his 900 theses
    were condemned as partiallyheretical by Pope Innocent VIII. He was arrested
    in France in1488, but allowed to return to Italy and to live near Florence
    under thesponsorship of Lorenzo de’ Medici, where he continued to write until
    his death at the age of 31. On The Dignity of Man was not published until after
    his death.
    Extracts from Pico della Mirandola On The Dignity of Man (1486)
    Adapted and with section numbers for TCFS use from Pico della Mirandola 1998, On the dignity
    of man, trans. CG Wallis, Hackett, Indianapolis.
    1.I have read in the records of the Arabians that Abdul the Saracen 27 , on being asked
    what in the whole world he viewed as most greatly worthy of wonder, answered that
    he viewed nothing as more wonderful than man. And Mercury's words“man is a great
    wonder,Asclepius!” agrees with that opinion. 28 On thinking over the reason for these
    sayings,I was not satisfiedbythe many assertions made by many men about why
    24 Please read the introduction and footnotes given in this extract carefully, as they are provided to
    assist yourunderstanding. However, it is not recommendedthat you directly cite them as a secondary
    source in your essay. If for any reason you need to do so, follow the format provided in the EAP
    25 He is usually referred toby his family name, ‘Pico’; ‘della Mirandola’, meaning ‘of Mirandola’,is
    the name of his home town, not his personal name.
    26 Refer to this extract in your essay as (Pico OnThe Dignity of Man Ex 1). Change the section number
    according to the one you are using. List inthe bibliography as: Pico della Mirandola 2015, On the
    dignity of man extract,Trinity College Foundation Studies, Melbourne.
    27 Theterm ‘Saracen’ was used to mean any Moslem, in this case an Islamic scholar
    28 Pico refers to the ancient writings known as “Hermetica”. These are pagan writings on such topics as
    the nature of gods and the universe, magic, religious purificationrituals,and prophesies. Modern
    scholars consider that they were probably written in the Roman period around the 2 nd -3 rd century AD,
    but in Pico’s time theywere believed to date from the Egyptian era about 3000years earlier,and to
    contain very ancient secret knowledge. The writings are presented as advicefrom the pagangod
    Hermes ‘Trismegistus’ (also called Mercury)to his disciples, including a person called Asclepius (a
    fictional descendant of the Greek god of Medicine called Asclepius). Pico’s teacher Ficino translated
    the texts for a printed Latin version.
    August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1
    Page 12 of 17
    human nature is outstanding: [they have said] that man is the messenger between
    creatures, familiar with the upper creatures and king of the lower creatures 29 ; by the
    sharpness of his senses, by the power ofreason, and by the light of intelligence, he is
    the interpreter of nature; the part in between the stillness of eternity and the flow of
    time 30 …. and, according to David, “a littlelower thanthe angels.” 31 Thesereasons
    are great butnot themainones, that is, they are not reasons for a lawful claim to the
    prerogative of being the highest wonder. Why should we not wonder more at the
    angels themselvesand at the very blessed heavenly choirs? 32
    2.Finally, it seemed to me that I understoodwhy man is the animal that is most happy,
    and is therefore worthy of wonder; and lastly, what the state is that is allotted to man
    in thesuccession of things, andthatis capable of arousing envy not only in the brutes
    but also in the stars and even in minds beyond the world. It is wonderful and beyond
    belief. For this is thereason why man is rightly saidand thoughtto be a great marvel
    and the animal really worthyof wonder. Now hear what it is, fathers; 33 andkindly and
    for the sake ofyour humanity, give me your close attention:
    3.Now the highest Father, God the master-builder, had, by the laws of his secret
    wisdom, fabricated this house, this world which we see, a very superb temple of
    divinity. 34 He had adorned the super-celestial region with minds. He had animated the
    celestial globes with eternal souls; he had filled the lower world with a diverse throng
    of animals.… 35 But, with the work finished, the Artisan 36 wanted someone to think
    about the reason of such a big work,to love its beauty, and to wonder at its greatness.
    Accordingly,now that all things had beencompleted, as Moses and Timaeus testify,
    He lastly considered creating man. 37 But there was nothing in the archetypes 38 from
    which He could mold something new. … Everything was filled up; all things had
    been laid out in the highest, the lowest, and the middle orders. 39 … Finally, the
    master-builder decided the being to which nothing of its very own could be given
    should be, in compositefashion, whatever had belonged individually to each and
    every thing. Therefore He took up man, a work of indeterminate form; and, placing
    him at themidpoint of the world,He spoketo him as follows:
    4.“I have given to you, Adam 40 ,nofixed place, no form of your very own, no gift
    29 Pico refers to the idea that there are two ‘worlds’ or levels of reality, an ‘upper’ or heavenly world
    (inhabited by God and angels, and beautiful music sung by choirs) and a ‘lower’world of the earth and
    all the animals, of which man is seen as the ‘king’.
    30 I.e., man has both an immortal soul, which is eternal, and also his physical body which lives in time.
    31 A quote from the Bible, Psalms 8.5 (according to tradition, written by the Hebrew King David)
    32 See footnote 29.
    33 Pico addresses his audience as ‘fathers’ as a mark of respect
    34 Pico suggests that the world is like a temple to God
    35 Pico refers to Neo-Platonicideas developed by pagan philosophers, inspired by Plato, in the 3 rd -5 th
    centuries AD, but which also influenced earlyChristian writers such as St Augustine. They theorized
    the existence of a complex universe including an intermediate worldof reason and of eternal souls
    existing between the physical world and that of a divine pure being or soul. See alsofootnote 29.
    36 I.e., God.
    37 Pico refers to the two accounts of howthe universe was made given in the Bible story of creation,
    here attributed to Moses, and in the Greek philosopher Plato’s work Timaeus. Plato also describes the
    universe as created by a divine ‘Craftsman’ or Artisan.
    38 Pico refers to the Platonic idea that there isanideal form or ‘archetype’ for every material thing.
    39 See footnote 35.
    40 Pico uses the name ‘Adam’ (the Hebrew word for ‘Man’), which is used in the Bible as the name of
    the first man to be created by God.
    August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1
    Page 13 of 17
    peculiarlyyours, so that you canfeel as your own, have as your own, possess as your
    own, the place, the form, the gifts which you yourself desire. Other creatures have a
    limited nature, confined within the laws written down by me. But I have put you in
    control of yourown free judgment, and in conformity with this you are confined by
    nobounds. You will fix limits of nature for yourself. I have placed you at the center
    of the world, so that from there you can more conveniently look around and see what
    is in the world.I have made you neither heavenly nor earthly, neither mortal nor
    immortal. You, like a judge appointedfor being honorable, are the molder and maker
    of yourself. You may sculpt yourself into whatever shape you prefer. You can grow
    downward into thelower natures which are brutes. You can grow upward from your
    soul's reason into the higher natures which are divine.”
    5.Oh, great generosity of God the Father! Oh great and wonderful happiness of man!
    Man has been given him what he chooses and can be what he wills. As soon as
    animals are born, they bringwith them, from their birth, as Lucilius 41 says,what they
    are goingto possess. Highest spirits 42 have been,either from the beginning or soon
    after, that which theyare going to be throughout everlasting eternity. At man's birth,
    the Father placed in him every sort of seed and sprouts of every kind of life. The
    seeds that eachman cultivates will grow and bear their fruit in him. 43 If he cultivates
    vegetable seeds,he willbecome a plant. If he cultivates the seeds of sensation, he will
    grow into a brute. If he cultivates rational seeds, he will come out a heavenly animal.
    If intellectual, he will be an angel, and a son of God. And if he is not contented with
    the lot of any creature but takes himself up into the center of his own unity, then,
    made one spirit with God 44 andsettled in the solitary darkness of the Father, who is
    above all things, he will stand ahead of all things. Who does not wonder at this
    chameleon 45 which we are?Or who feels more wonder at anything elsewhatever? …
    6.According tothe Pythagoreans, wicked men are deformed into brutes and, if you
    believe Empedocles, into plants too. 46 And copying them, Mohammed often said that
    he who draws back from divine law becomes a brute. And his saying so was
    reasonable: for it is not the skin which makes the plant, but a dull and non-sentient
    nature; not the hidewhich makesa beast of burden 47 ,but a brutal andsensual soul;
    not thespherical body which makes the heavens, but right reason; 48 and not a
    separatenessfrom the body but a spiritual intelligence which makes an angel. For
    example, ifyousee a man given over to his appetites and crawling upon the ground, it
    is a bushnot a man that you see. If you see anyone … delivered over to the senses, it
    is a brute not a man that you see. If you see a philosopher sorting out all things by
    right reason,he is a heavenly not an earthly animal. If you see pure contemplator,
    41 A Roman writer of the2 nd century BC.
    42 See note 35.
    43 In this section, Pico uses ametaphor ofa farmer cultivating different seeds to express the idea that a
    human chooses what kind of life he will live and creature he will be.
    44 Pico refers to Neo-Platonicideas of achieving union with the divine pure being or soul, interpreted in
    Christian terms as a spiritual union with God.
    45 A chameleon is a small lizard which can change itsbody colour to match its surroundings.
    46 Followers of the 6 th century BC Greek philosopher Pythagoras believed in aform of reincarnation.
    The5 th centuryBC Greek philosopher Empedocles said thatall living things were made from the same
    four basic elements, and is reported to have written “...I wasborn a male and female child, a plant, a
    bird and a dumb fish ofthe sea…” (Empedocles of Akragas, fr. 117,see Freeman, K 1952 Ancilla to
    the pre-Socratic Philosophers, Oxford,, p. 65).
    47 An animal used to carry heavy things, such asa mule or ox.
    48 See footnote 35 on Neo-Platonic ideasof a heavenly world of reason.
    August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1
    Page 14 of 17
    ignorant of the body, banished to the innermost places of the mind, he is not an
    earthly, not aheavenly animal; he more superbly is a divinity clothed with human
    7.Who is there that does not wonder at man? And it is not unreasonable that in the
    Mosaic 49 and Christian holy writingsman is sometimes denoted by the name “all
    flesh” and at other times by that of “every creature”; and man fashions, fabricates,
    transforms himself into the shape of all flesh, into the character of every creature. 50
    Accordingly,where Evantes the Persian tells of the Chaldaean theology, 51 he writes
    thatman is not any inborn image ofhimself,but manyimages coming in from the
    outside: hencethatsaying of the Chaldaeans: … “man is an animal of diverse,
    multiform, anddestructible nature”.
    8.But why all this? In orderfor us to understand that, after having been born in this
    state so that we may be whatwe want to be, then, since we are held in honor, we
    ought to take particular care that no one may say against us that we do not know that
    we are made similar to brutes and mindless beasts of burden. 52 But rather, as Asaph
    the prophet says: “You are all gods, and sons of the most high,” unless by abusing the
    very indulgent generosity of [God] the Father, we make the free choice, which he
    gave to us, whichis harmful to ourselves instead of helpful toward salvation. 53
    9.Let a certainholy ambition invade the mind, so that we may not be content with
    mean things but may aspireto thehighest things and strivewith all our strength to
    attain them:for if we have the will to, we can. Let us spurn earthly things; let us
    struggle towardthe heavenly. Let us put in last place whatever is of this world; and let
    us flybeyond the chambersof this world to the chamber nearest the most lofty
    divinity… , let uscompete with the angels in dignity andglory. When we have willed
    it, we shall be not at all belowthem.
    10.But by what method? or by doing what? … I sayallthese things… against the
    philosophers of this age, whobelieve and preach that there should be no
    philosophizing because there is no moneyfor philosophers, no prizes awarded them;
    as if they did not show by this one word that theyare notphilosophers. Since their
    whole life is set on money-making or ambition,they do notembrace the knowledge of
    truth for itself. I shall givemyself this credit and shall not be shy to praise myself in
    this respect, that I havenever philosophized for any reason other than for the sake of
    philosophizing, that I have neither hoped nor sought from my studies… any gain or
    profit other thancultivation of my soul andknowledge of truth, always so greatly
    desired by me. I have always been so desirous of this truth and so much in love with it
    that,abandoning all care of public and private affairs, I gave my whole self over to
    49 Of Moses: i.e., the Hebrew Bible (or Old Testament).
    50 Pico quotes the sections of the Hebrew and Christian Bible (Old and New Testaments): Genesis 6: 12;
    Numbers 27: 16; Mark 16:15.
    51 Thewriter Evantes is not known. Pico perhapsrefers to Greek writings known as the‘Chaldean
    Oracles’, dating from around the 2 nd century AD, which contained Neo-Platonic and Persian or
    Mesopotamian (referred to as ‘Chaldean’) ideas. Pico and other Renaissance thinkers believed that they
    had original copies of these texts (also known from later, 11 th and 15 th century copies) ,but they were
    probably forgeries.
    52 A quote from the Bible, Psalms 48:21.
    53 A quote from the Bible, Psalms 81:6.
    August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1
    Page 15 of 17
    the leisure of contemplating, from which no disparaging of the envious, no curses
    from the enemies of wisdom, have been able so far or will be able later to frighten me
    away. Philosophy herself has taught me to weigh things rather by my own conscience
    than by the judgments of others, and to considernot so much whether I should be
    badly spoken 'of as whether I myself should say or do anything bad. …
    11.There are some who do not approve of this whole class of disputes 54 andthis practice of
    debating in public about letters 55 , asserting that it makes rather for the display of talent and
    learning thanfor acquiring knowledge. There are some who do not disapprove of this type of
    exercise, but who do not approve of it at all in my case, because I at my age, in only my 24th
    year, have dared, in the most famous city 56 , in the largest assemblyof the mostlearned
    men 58 …, to propose adisputation on the sublime mysteries ofChristian theology, on the
    loftiest questions of philosophy, on unknown teachings. Otherswho give me permission to
    dispute are unwilling to give me leave to dispute about nine hundred questions, saying in
    slander that the proposal was made as needlessly and ambitiously as it was beyond my
    12.First, to those who slander this practice of disputingpublicly, I am not going to say much,
    except that this crime, if they judge it a crime, is the joint work not only of all you very
    excellent doctors 59 - whohave often completed this task with very great praise and glory - but
    also of Platoand Aristotle and the most upright philosophers of every age, together with me.
    To them it seemed certain that the exercise of disputing was the best for reaching the
    knowledge of the truth which theywere seeking. Just as through gymnastics the forces of the
    bodyare strengthened, so doubtlessin this kindof literary gymnasium, the forces of the soul
    become much stronger and more vigorous. …
    13.But to those who say that I am not capable of this, the reason in my defense is more
    difficult… I do not deny that I am very studious and desire the good arts, nevertheless I do
    not take to myself or layclaim tothe name of learned man. I took up such a huge task not
    because Iwas unconsciousof our weakness, but because I knew that this sort of literary
    struggle was peculiarin that here it is a gain to lose. Consequently, anyone very weak can
    and should not only not disparage them, but also seek them voluntarily, since the loser truly
    receives benefit and not injury from the winner. Through the winner, the loser returns home
    richer - that is, more learned and readier for future fights 60 . Inspired by thishope, I, weak
    soldier thoughI am, have not been afraid to challenge the bravest and strongest of all to such
    a heavy battle.
    14.…I have resolved not to completely trust anyone's words, so that Ibase myselfonall
    teachers of philosophy, examine all writings, recognize every school 61 …. For it was a
    practice ofthe ancients to study every school of writers, and if possible, to leave no treatises
    unread;…Further, in each school there is something notable that it does not have in common
    54 See Introduction.
    55 ‘Letters’ is used in the Renaissance senseof learned study.
    56 I.e., Rome, where the proposed debatewasto be held.
    58 Pico had invited philosophers andtheologians from many Italian universities to come to his proposed
    59 A ‘doctor’ was a person with a higher university degree.
    60 I.e., debates. Pico is arguing that those who are not skilled at debate should participate in them in
    order to improve their skills, and that thus the person who loses a debate learns more and ‘wins’. He
    refers to the debate as a ‘battle’ and those debating as ‘soldiers’.
    61 A ‘school’ is a group of philosophers working in a particular tradition or setof ideas.
    August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1
    Page 16 of 17
    with theothers … Inspired by this reasoning, I have wished to bring into view the things
    taughtnot merely accordingto one doctrine (as some would desire), but things taught
    according to every sort of doctrine, that by this comparison of very many sects and by the
    discussion ofmanifold philosophy, that radiance of truth which Plato mentions in his Letters
    might shine moreclearly upon our minds,likethe sun rising from the deep? What good was
    it if only the philosophy of the Latins would be treated, namely, Thomas, Scotus, Aegidius,
    Francis, and Henry 62 , without the Greekand Arab philosophers?All wisdom flowed from the
    barbarians 63 to the Greeks, and from theGreeks to us.…ConsequentlyI was not content to
    have added, beside the common teachings, much on the ancient theology of Mercury
    Trismegistus, 64 much on thedoctrines ofthe Chaldaeans 65 and ofPythagoras 66 , and much on
    the more secret mysteries of the Jews 67 , and I also proposed for disputationvery manythings
    discovered and thought out by usonnatural and divine matters…
    15.I have proposed theorems about magic, too, in which I have signified that magic has two
    types … The first sort is put togetherbythe work and authorship of demons, and is a thing,
    as God is true, execrable and monstrous. The other sort is, when well explored, nothing but
    the absolute consummation of thephilosophy of nature. … Not only the Christian religion,
    but all laws, every well ordered state, condemns and curses the first. All wise men, all nations
    studious of things heavenly and divine, approve and embrace the second. … I find three
    among the moderns who havecaught the scent of it, Alchindus the Arab, Roger Bacon, and
    William of Paris
    68 . … asthe first type of magic makes man subject to and delivered over to
    the powers of wickedness, so the second type makes him their prince and lord. … And
    especiallybecause the first type of magic delivers man over to the enemies of God, calls him
    away from God, this secondtype of magic arouses that admiration at the works of God which
    prepares [the mind] so that charity, faith, and hope most surely follow. For nothing impels [a
    person]more toward religion and the worship of God than assiduous contemplation of the
    wonders of God. When weshall have well explored these wonders by means of this natural
    magic we are speaking of, we shall be inspired more ardently to the worship and love of the
    62 The‘Latins’ here are the philosophers of the Medieval Christian scholastic tradition, writingin Latin: Thomas
    Aquinas (1225-1274); John Duns Scotus (1266?-1308);Aegidius, or Giles of Rome (1247?-1316); Francis of
    Mayrone (c. 1280–1327);and Henry of Ghent (c. 1217 – 1293).
    63 TheAncient Greeks referred to non-Greek peoples such as thePersians as ‘barbarians’. Pico means
    ancient peoples who were not Greeks.
    64 See footnote 28.
    65 See footnote 51.
    66 TheGreek philosopher (570–c. 495 BC), whose philosophy also included spiritual ideas about the
    nature of the universe and reincarnation – see also footnote 46.
    67 Pico is referring to the Cabala (alsospelled Kabbalah or Kabala), Jewish mystical teachings which
    developed during the Middle Ages, but whichwere claimed to have been secretly given to Moses by
    God at the same time as the laws of the Hebrew Bible (which make up the first5 books of the Christian
    Bible).Theteachings, mostly in the form of comments on sections in the Bible, contain descriptions of
    religious visions, of the nature of the universe, interpretations of a hidden meaningin the Bible based
    on the numerological values of Hebrew letters, and some magical and astrological texts.
    Alchindus or Al-Kindi (c. 801–873), Arab philosopher and follower of Aristotle, also influenced by
    Neo-Platonism; Roger Bacon (c. 1214-1292), was an English monk influenced by Arab philosophy,
    who explored alchemy and used experiments to discover more about the physicalworld; William of
    Auvergne (c. 1180-1249) was a bishop of Paris who tried to bring together the teachings of Aristotle
    and Christianity. Pico expressesthe belief that through an understanding of the hidden inner truth
    within nature, humanscan gain magical powers of control over nature. This belief was the basis of the
    practice of Alchemy, based on the ‘Hermetic’ writings and Platonic ideas, developed by Arab
    philosophers and adopted by Roger Bacon, in which experimentation with substances – later developed
    into Chemistry – was carried out in an attempt to find the Philosopher’s Stone, which it wasbelieved
    could transform base metal into gold; and the Elixir of Life, which it was believed could cure all disease
    and prolong life.
    August Main Intake 2015/16 Second Essay Q1
    Page 17 of 17
    maker 69 …
    16.I comenow tothose things that I have dug up from the ancient mysteries of the
    Hebrews 70 and have brought forward in order to confirm the holy and Catholic faith… Not
    only do celebrated doctors of the Hebrews, but also among us Esdras, Hilary, and Origen 71
    write that Moses on the mountain received from God not only the law, which, as written
    down infive books, he left toposterity,but also a more secret and true interpretation of the
    law 72 . But Godcommanded him to publish the law to the people,yet notto passonin writing
    the interpretation of the law, or to make it generally known … Consequently it was not
    human prudence but divine command to keep these things secret from the people, and to
    communicate them to the perfect, among whom alone Paul says that he spoke wisdom. 73 …
    17.These are the books of the knowledge of Cabala 74 …. Inthis age these books are
    cherished among the Hebrews with such religious awe that no one is allowed to touch them
    unlesshe is forty years old. When I had procured myself these books at no small expense and
    had read them through with the greatest diligence and unwearied labor, I saw in them (God is
    my witness) a religion not so much of Mosesas Christian 75 … There I read thesame thingson
    original sin 76 , on Christ's atonement for it 77 …. on the fall of demons 78 , on the ranksof
    angels 79 , on purgatory 80 , on the punishments of hell 81 , which we daily read in Paul and
    Dionysius, Jerome and Augustine. 82 In terms of philosophy, you may really hear Pythagoras
    and Plato,whose doctrines are so akin to Christianfaith that our Augustine gives great thanks
    to Godthatthe books of the Platonists came into his hands. In short, there is hardly any
    dispute between us and the Hebrews …
    69 I.e., God, who according to Christian theology made the universe.
    70 See note 66. Pico uses the term ‘Hebrews’ to mean Jews both in ancient times and in his own era.
    ‘Doctors’ of the Hebrews: Jewishscholars; ‘among us’ – i.e., Christians; Esdras orEzra, 6 th century BC
    Jewish priest and prophet, known from the Bible; Hilary: An early Christian bishop (c.300-367AD), who wrote
    against the Arian heresy; Origen,an early Church Father (c. 185-c. 254) and important Christian Neo-Platonist.
    72 See footnote 66.
    73 Paul was the follower of Jesus who began to spread the teachings of Jesus beyond the Jewish
    community. The quote is from I Corinthians 2:6.
    74 See footnote 66. By tradition, Cabalistic teachings were only read by men over 40, as they were
    considered too dangerous and powerful for an immature person to read.
    75 Pico interprets the rather ambiguous visions and descriptionsin Cabala in Christianterms.
    76 ‘Original sin’ refers to the Christian belief that all humans are born sinful, due to the sin of Adam
    and Eve (the first humans, according to the Bible story) who disobeyed God by eating the fruitwhich
    God had forbiddenthem to eat.
    77 This refers to the Christian belief that Jesus’ suffering by crucifixion paid for humans’ sins, and thus
    replaced thepunishment which humans deserve.
    78 This refers to the Christian belief in evil beings called demons, who were once angels but rebelled
    against God.
    79 There were believedto be different kinds and levels of angelic beings.
    80 This refers to the Christian belief in a place of purification after death, in which those about to enter
    heaven are cleansed.
    81 This refers to the Christian belief in a place of eternal punishment for those who have sinned.
    82 Paul: See footnote 72; Dionysius: famous writings (probably of the late5 th Century A.D) with
    Christian, Greek and Jewish elements, which had a great influence on Christian theology; Jerome: 4 th -
    5 th centuryFather of the Church; Augustine: Early Christianbishop (AD 354-430), who formulated a
    Christian version of Plato’s ideal world of forms in which the ideal world was with God, after
    Judgment Day.