Review & Facility Design Tips 代写

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  • Review & Facility Design Tips
    TOPIC 12
    Topic 12 Learning Outcomes
    Identify report types, and styles expected
    with respect to report writing
    To be able to construct a report using the
    correct structure
    Appreciate the importance of using the correct language style in report writing and the important role that editing plays in successful report production
    Consider and apply graphics appropriate to a report
    Explain and practice the use of referencing and the avoidance of plagiarism
    Topic 12 Outline
    Course Review
    Report Writing
    Writing Style
    Final Points
    Learning Objectives
    After successfully completing this course you should be
    able to:
    Explain how the demographic & psychographic characteristics of people influences their behaviour in tourism and leisure settings;
    Demonstrate how people make decisions about tourist and leisure experiences;
    Apply the concepts of tourist and leisure behaviour to evaluate and design successful on-site experiences and to solve problems in tourism and leisure settings; and
    Understand the key psychological dimensions and approaches to measuring satisfaction
    Major questions to answer by end of course:
    Why do people participate in leisure activities such as travel or events?
    What is the influence of a person’s:
    age, gender, social class, ethnicity
    personality, lifestyle, values, motives, etc.
      … on their decision to participate in leisure or take a trip?
    Why and how do people choose one visitor experience or destination over another?
    Can we categorise and segment tourist and visitor markets to predict their behaviour and spending patterns?
    How do we measure the outcomes of tourist & visitor experiences (e.g. satisfaction, happiness, quality of life).
    How can we use our understanding of people to design or improve tourist and visitor experiences?

    Five-phase model of recreational experiences
    Clawson & Knetsch (1966); Adapted from Page & Connell (2010)
    Pearce’s (2005) Concept Map for Understanding Tourist Behaviour

    Formal Report Expectations
    All reports must meet certain criteria:
    The content should be accurate
    The purpose of the report should be apparent
    The organisation & structure should be clear
    The discussion should be coherent
    The presentation of the report should be neat
    The writing style should be clear and concise
    Report Structure
    Front Matter
    Title Page
    Executive Summary (Synopsis / Abstract)
    Table of Contents (& List of Illustrations)

    Findings [Results] &/or Discussion [aka Report Body]
    Conclusion [& Recommendations]
    End Matter
    References / Bibliography
    [Glossary / List of Abbreviations / Index]
    Report Structure – Facility Design
    Front Matter
    Title Page
    Table of Contents
    Report Body
    Market segments, motivation, positioning & image, layout and presentation, orientation, experience management, service personnel & satisfaction [in any order]
    End Matter
    Report Structure
    Report Structure - Criteria

    üAn inviting introduction that sets the scene & clearly describes the facility. The introduction covers extensive & relevant background sources
    üMarket segments are clearly identified, profiled and described and are supported by research
    üExcellent understanding of motivational theory - motives of each segment are profiled
    üThe positioning & image of the facility is realistic, excellent discussion of marketing efforts required to support image for each segment
    üThe layout has been well thought out and decisions about placement and visitor movements well justified
    üOrientation aids and systems are well thought out and described and backed by theory
    üExcellent used of experiential frameworks and theories to explain how the experience will be managed
    üConsiderable thought evident in managing visitor feedback monitoring satisfaction & interactions with service personnel
    üA satisfying conclusion leaves the reader with a sense of closure.
    Report Structure: Headings
    1.0  First-level heading
      1.1  Second-level heading
      1.2.  Second-level heading
      1.2.1  Third-level heading
      1.2.2  Third-level heading  Fourth-level heading

    2.0  First-level heading
      2.1  Second-level heading
      2.2  Second-level heading

    Consider using Graphics
    Graphics convey information visually
    Reinforce and complement the text
    Clarify complex material
    Show the total picture
    Emphasise written ideas
    Link ideas
    Catch reader’s attention
    Help reader remember information
    Consider using Graphics
    Consider using Graphics
    Motives of three different theme park segments
    Source: Pearce, 1991
    Consider using Graphics
    Important questions to ask in using graphics
    Does the graphic used show the data clearly, without distorting the facts?
    Is too little or too much information being presented?
    Is the reader encouraged to analyse the data?
    Has the most effective style of graphic been chosen for the data being represented?
    Is the graphic supported by appropriate text coverage?
    Have the correct labeling conventions been applied in presenting the graphic?  
    Consider using Graphics - Criteria
    üFigures and tables are neat, accurate and add to the understanding of the topic.
    üAt least two figures of the design are provided with appropriate use of colour, labelling and/or a legend
    üThe scale and orientation of the design illustrations are clearly shown
    üFigure titles are shown and figures are referred to in the text of the report.
    Graphics & Labelling Conventions
    Two main graphic types
    Figures [graphs, photos, diagrams, maps, etc;]
    Label graphics sequentially by type
    e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3; Table 1, Table 2 etc…
    or Figure 2.1, Figure 2.2, etc; within report sections
    Table labels & titles above
    Figure labels & title below
    Report Presentation Tips
    Use good quality, white A4 paper
    Fonts should be 11-12 point (Arial, Helvetica, Times Roman or Calibri preferred)
    Leave space for big margins (not less than 2.5 cm)
    Use 1.5 line spacing
    Start each section on a new page
    Place headings on the left margin
    Number all pages
    Presentation can be single or double sided
    Always proofread / edit the report
    prior to submitting it
    Keep a copy for yourself
    Presentation Criteria
    üTitle page is attractive and the report is professionally presented
    üAppropriate use of fonts and line spacing.
    üThe length is within the parameters established for the task and pagination is correct
    Writing Style & Formality
    Academic & business contexts require formal writing
    Avoid using the first person ‘I’ and do not address the reader as ‘you’.
    Avoid contractions (e.g. won’t = will not).
    Avoid run-on expressions: ‘and so forth’ and ‘etc’.
    Avoid asking rhetorical questions such as ‘What can be done?’ Use statements instead, such as ‘X needs to be considered’.
    Watch out for:
    They’re, there, their
    Its, It’s
    Your, You’re
    Writing Style & Formality
    Choice between verb + preposition or a single verb
    Single verb is more formal. For example:
      The manager looked at the way tension builds up during performance review meetings. (less formal style)
      The manager investigated the way tension develops during performance review meetings. (more formal style)
    Do not place adverbs at the beginning or end of the sentence.
    Do not write: Then the solution can be discarded.
    Write: The solution can then be discarded.
    Do not write: The profits have increased slowly.
    Write: The profits have slowly increased.
    Writing Skills - Criteria
    üThe report demonstrates a good grasp of standard writing conventions (i.e. spelling, punctuation, grammar).
    üWords are specific and accurate. It is easy to understand just what the author means.
    üSentences and paragraphs are well constructed, with natural flow/rhythm, and expressive, varied structure.
    The first step towards achieving educational integrity is learning to reference correctly.
    Referencing enhances your writing
    The marker/reader wants to know that:
    You have done relevant reading beyond the text & lecture material
    You understand what you have read
    You have used readings to strengthen your arguments
    You can apply the readings to practical outcomes
    You have acknowledged all your sources
    When Should You Use Citations?
    References must be provided whenever you use someone’s ideas, opinions or words.
    That is, when you:
    quote - use their exact words
    copy - use graphs, figures, tables
    paraphrase - use their idea in your own words
    summarise - give a brief account of their ideas
    When Should You Use Citations?
    Commonly known facts do not need a citation
    Look at the following statements. Which one needs a citation?
    The moon revolves around the earth.
    Sydney is on the east coast of Australia.
    Australia’s population will double by 2050
    Food is necessary for survival
    Harvard Style … 2 main steps:
    In-Text Citations
    In-text citations require:
    Author’s surname(s)
    A comma
    Year of publication
    + page number if a direct quote

    No author? The author might be an organisation
    (e.g. Commonwealth of Australia; Wikipedia)
    In-Text Citations
    What to include?
    Direct quote of someone else’s work
    Author’s last name, publication year, and page number(s) of quote must appear in the text
    Summary of someone else’s work
    Author’s last name & publication year must appear in the text
    Electronic Sources
    In-text references do not include the URL. Use the same principles (author, date, page) that you use for other in-text references.
    If a Web page has no author, use the organisation or publisher.
    If there is no author or organisation use the title of the web page and the date in-text.
    If no date, use “n.d.” (no date)
    In-Text Citations
    There are two styles for citing references:
    Author-prominent – gives prominence to the author by using the author’s name as part of the sentence, with the date and page number in brackets.
      Smith (2002, p. 5) has argued that “the relative seriousness of the two kinds of errors differs from situation to situation”.
    Information-prominent – gives prominence to the information, with all the details in brackets.
      It has been argued that “the relative seriousness of the two kinds of errors differs from situation to situation” (Smith 2002, p. 5).
    Reference List
    The reference list is arranged:
    at the end of the essay, article or report
    on a separate page
    only with references that have been referred to in your work
    using consistent punctuation and layout
    Provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any sources cited in your work.
    Each retrievable source cited in the work must appear on the reference page, and vice versa.

    Reference List
    The details required for a BOOK are:
    Surname(s) of author(s), editor(s), compiler(s) or the institution responsible
    year of publication
    title of publication and subtitle if any
    series title and individual volume, if any
    edition, if other than the first
    place of publication
    page number(s) if applicable
      Lathrop, A & Foss, K 2000, Student cheating and plagiarism in the Internet era: a wake-up call, Libraries Unlimited,  Englewood, Colorado.
    Reference List
    The details required for an ARTICLE are:
    1.Surname(s) of author(s) of the article
    2.year of publication
    3.title of article
    4.title of journal/periodical/magazine
    5.volume number
    6.issue (or part) number number(s)
      Callahan, D 2006, ‘On campus: author discusses the cheating culture with college students’, Plagiary: Cross Disciplinary Studies in Plagiarism, Fabrication, and Falsification, vol 1, no. 4, pp.1-8.
    Reference List
    The details required for WEBSITES are: of author(s) or the organisation responsible for document, web page or site
    2.year of publication of document, creation of page/site or date last revised. If you cannot establish the date of publication, use n.d. (no date)
    3.title of document or page, if applicable and place of the publisher, sponsor or host of the source item viewed
    6.web page or site address, or name of database on internet (if applicable)
      Roberts, T & McInnerney, J 2006, Assessment in higher education: plagiarism, Central Queensland University, viewed 4 April 2006,  <>.
    Putting it all together
    … Too many of our managers are good with things but not with people. It is a phenomenon that has been noted all over the world. As Douglas observes of British managers, “…experience shows that there is often an inverse correlation between  the extent of a particular individual’s technical expertise and that person’s ability to manage people” (Douglas 2006, p. 34). Smith (2002) notes that US employers are complaining about graduates who are primarily ‘number-crunchers’ but who communicate poorly with clients and staff. Australian government surveys show that employers across the board are dissatisfied with the abilities of graduates to communicate in team and face-to-face situations (AC Nielsen Research Services 2007; Department of Education, Science and Training 2006).
    Putting it all together
    AC Nielsen Research Services 2007, Employer satisfaction with graduate skills-research report, Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs, Canberra.
    Department of Education, Science and Training 2006, Employability skills for the future, viewed 4 April 2010,  <>.
    Douglas, M 2006, ‘Why soft skills are an essential part of the hard world of business’, British Journal of Administrative Management, Christmas/New Year, vol 12, no.4, pp.34–5.
    Smith, R 2002, ‘The top business schools (a special report) – playing well with others: recruiters say the ‘soft’ skills, such as leadership, communication and the ability to work in teams, are just as important as the hard stuff; and a lot harder to teach’, The Wall Street Journal, p.11.
    Important Tips
    It is not enough to simply add a reference list to the end of an essay or report.
    Do not give one reference at the end of a paragraph!
    All references in the list must match your in-text references. 
    Double-check that you have used a consistent and correct punctuation style in the reference list.
    References - Criteria
    üHarvard conventions are diligently followed when citing sources in text
    üSources are well integrated and every point is clearly supported.
    üThe reference list is presented alphabetically, using correct Harvard syntax
    Final Points
    5,000-8,000 words for main report (introduction + body + conclusion)
    Body sections do not have to be equal length
    Do not try to use all lectures or concepts discussed – pick the most appropriate/useful for your design, or find your own models J
    Include at least 2 illustrations
    May include more illustrations - not part of page limit
    Hand drawn or computer designed … use colour & design principles discussed in class
    Use appendices if necessary but don’t overuse
    Be a creative and critical thinker - back ideas up with citations
    Balance descriptive material (what) with analysis & justification (why & how)
    Search broadly for literature on similar types of facilities
    Presentation important - make it look professional
    Ensure a mix of sources (journal articles, books, websites, reports) – at least 15 for a pass assignment
    Get a friend to read over your final draft & double check Guidelines & Criteria before submitting