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    o   To develop and or expand our KNOWLEDGE in a particular subject area
    o   To develop SKILLS that you will need in your future degree course, and the workplace
    o   Research skills
    o   Logical (ordered) presentation of material
    o   Synthesis of ideas, written expression (combining different ideas)
    o   Problem solving skills
    o   Referencing (acknowledgement of resources)
    o   Critical analysis of information
    o   When we think critically we are being active; we are not simply accepting everything we read and hear, but we are questioning, evaluating, making judgements, finding connections and categorising.

    o   Begin by clarifying the topic. Ask yourself:  What exactly do I need to know?
    -          Do I understand all of the terms used in the assignment?
    -          Break down the topic into major parts. This helps to identify the major concepts
    o   Do some background reading. This helps to familiarize you with the topic
    o   Choose your information sources
    -          In foundation of management, you may use the following sources ONLY:
    a) A text book (one that is not your prescribed/ class text) (only for assignment 1)
    b) Articles/research published in academic journals (assignments 1 & 2)
    o   Locate the information you want from these resources
    -          Read and take notes as you read
    -          Tip: For each source divide a blank piece of paper into 3 columns. As follows:
    Source: (title of text &authors name, and other relevant publication details)
    Headings / Main points: Summary of notes (ideas or arguments found that others have developed). Space for your own ideas comments and thoughts.
    o   Look critically at the information you have found
    -          Group your findings together
    -          Summarize the arguments in the sources (referring to as many studies as you can to support the argument)
    -          Make a judgment on the most ‘favored ‘view what do most of the sources say? Do they all agree with a particular view? Do any disagree?
    o   Start writing your assignment
    Conduct searches of the Library’s:
    -          Electronic journal databases to find journal articles:
    §  Proquest
    §  Emerald
    ·        How do I find the database?
    ·        Step one: go to Latrobe University Home page
    ·        Step two: click on “quicklinks”
    ·        Step three: click on “library”
    ·        Step four: click go
    ·        Step five: Click on “a-z databases/journals”
    ·        Step Six: click on E for emerald or P for Proquest
    ·        Step 7: Select the database you require and click again to enter
    -          Use Google Scholar
    ·        How?
    ·        Step one: go to Latrobe University Home page
    ·        Step two: click on “quicklinks”
    ·        Step three: click on “library”
    ·        Step four: click “go”
    ·        Step four: You will find Google scholar under the ‘study and research’section
    Tip: if you find a good article, look at its bibliography …. It will point you to other studies
    •         Make notes from the articles:
    –        Don’t plagiarise
    –        Take down the publication details for your reference list
    –        Note which articles the author is citing – may lead you to other relevant articles
    •         Your paper should have the following characteristics:
    –        Be typed in 12 point, TNR or Arial
    –        Left justified
    –        1.5 line spaced
    –        Reference list should start on a new page
    –        Stapled in the top left-hand corner of the page
    –        Check your spelling, punctuation and grammar
    –        Print only on one side of paper
    •         Read your work – ask the following:
    –        Have I answered the question?
    –        Have I discussed the different viewpoints?
    –        Is my argument clear?
    –        Does my paper have the appropriate structure?
    –        PROOF READ your work – do not simply rely on automatic spell check
    –        If possible, ask someone (not a fellow student) to read over your paper – does it make sense to them?
    –        When checking your draft ask yourself:
    •         Consistently ask yourself:
    •         Am I answering the question?
    •         Am I presenting the various views in the literature accurately and appropriately?
    •         Am I presenting the various arguments in the literature in a logical way?
    •         How is this paragraph relevant to the question?
    •         Am I writing these ideas in my own words and acknowledging the source?
    –        Use the ‘paragraph plan’ you developed as a guide
    –        Try to stick to ‘one point per paragraph’
    Definition of Plagiarism
    •         There are many forms of plagiarism, including the following:
    –        Direct copying of sentences, paragraphs or other extracts from someone else’s published work (including on the Internet and in software) without acknowledging the source
    –        paraphrasing someone else’s words without acknowledging the source
    –        Using facts and information derived from a source without acknowledging the source
    –        Using ideas directly derived from an identifiable author without acknowledging the source
    –        Producing assignments which should be your own, independent work in collaboration with and/or using the work of other people (e.g. a student or tutor).
    Avoiding plagiarism
    •         When preparing your arguments, take notes (in your own words) from the articles and then write the essay from your notes:
    –        that way, you never sit in front of the computer with the original articles in front of you
    •         As a standard rule, do not directly copy text from other sources:
    –        If you do, put it in quotation marks and provide an in-text citation (including page number)
    •         When paraphrasing or putting an idea in your own words, always acknowledge where you got the idea from by providing an in-text citation
    •         Give the source for any facts or figures that you use in your assignment
    Why is referencing important?
    -          When you write an assignment you will need to complete research and refer to the work of other scholars
    -          You must always acknowledge the work of others, where you have used it to produce your own work
    -         Referencing shows that you have read widely and considered relevant literature for your assignment
    -         To support your arguments with evidence
    -         To distinguish your ideas from the ideas of others
    -         It the reader of your work (me)  to easily find the sources you used to write your assignment
    -         to avoid plagiarism and consequent failure of assignments
    When do I need to cite or reference my work?
    -          When you use direct quotes (copy word for word)
    -          When you paraphrase (rewrite in your own words – usually to simplify)
    -          When you summarise or refer to the ideas or theories of another person
    -          You do not need to cite
    -          Your own ideas or experiences
    -          Common knowledge ( e.g. drink driving increase possibility of accidents)
    -          You will need to complete in-text citations AND a reference list
    -          We will be using the Harvard referencing system in foundation of management assignments
    In- Text Citations
    Direct Quotes
    Need to include author’s family name, year of publication, page number(s).
    e.g. Davidson & Griffin (2000, p. 5) define management as “a set of activities (including planning and decision making, organising, leading, and controlling) directed at an organisations resources.”
    §  This example has 2 authors (Davidson and Griffin)
    §  The book was published in 2000
    §  The direct quote can be found on page 5 of their text
    Need to include author’s family name, year of publication.
    e.g. Davidson & Griffin (2000) argue that managers are responsible for organising resources to achieve the goals of the organisation
    Managers are responsible for organising resources to achieve the goals of the organisation (Davidson & Griffin, 2000).
    §  This example has 2 authors (Davidson and Griffin)
    §  The book was published in 2000
    §  The page number is not required as the wording in the example above has not been copied word for word from the text.

    Reference list:
    –        Start on a new page
    –        Style: have you employed a consistent and correct format for the full citations?
    –        Only include those references that you have cited in-text
    –        Should be listed alphabetically, by surname (family name)
    –        If you are unsure which is the family name ASK your teacher.
    Example of book:
    –        Surname, initial. (Year of publication) Title of book.  Place of publication: publisher.
    –        Davidson, P. & Griffin R. W. (2000) Management Australia, John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
    Example of a journal article:
    Surname, initial. (Year of publication) ‘Title of article’.Name of Journal, volume(issue): page spread.
    Baxter, J. and M. Bittman (1995) ‘Measuring time spent in housework: A comparison of two approaches’. Australian Journal of Social Research, 1(3): 21-46.