Guide to In-text Citation and Referencing
1) If you are paraphrasing from any source in which the author’s name is given,
you must mention the author’s surname, date of publication and the page
Chase (1979:204) reported that…
According to Henderson and King (1987:176),…
2) If you are summarising the overall idea of a book or article, you just have
mention the author’s surname and date of publication. The page number is not
The study concluded that there was no clear link between obesity and genetics (Smith,
3) If you are citing from a source written by more than two authors, rather than
writing the name of every author, use the name of the first author followed by et
al, which means and others.
Jones et al (2001) explained that…
4) If you are using an authoritative source but there is no author, you should cite the
name of the organisation in the text.
A report published by the BBC (2004) indicated that…
There has been a slight increase in the number of homeless children in developed countries
in the last 10 years (UNESCO, 2008).
5) If you are giving exact quotations, you should identify the page numbers on
which the quotations can be found.
Black (2007:143) claims that, ‘……………………………..’
6) If the quotation is 3 lines of longer, you should indent the whole quotation.
The presence of ghrelin added weight to the argument:
Made in the stomach, ghrelin levels rise when people are hungry and wane after a meal.
People who get injections of the hormone gorge themselves, while those suffering from a
rare disease that keeps ghrelin levels unusually high tend to be obese overeaters
7) If you are referring to the work of an author who is cited in someone else’s work,
you must mention both authors.
O’Neill (2000, cited in Bell, 2003:64) discovered that…
* Please note that only the author of the book/journal that you read should be included
in the reference list. In this example, only Bell would be in the reference list.
Comment [KHEI1]: Please note that et
al should be in italics
The way you reference the information that you cite depends much on the type of source
that you use. Here are some examples.
Book: Single author
Author. Date. Title: subtitle. Place: Publisher.
Chase, J.A. (1979). Advertising: the hits and myths. New York: Doubleday.
Book: Multiple authors
Authors. Date. Title. Place: Publisher.
Henderson, R.S. and King, P.Q. (1987). The tenets of moral philosophy. New York: Van
Book: Chapter from an edited book with different contributors
Author. Date. Title: subtitle of the chapter. In Editors of book (Eds.), Title of book. (page
reference). Place: Publisher.
Andrews, R.A. (1989). Language. In K. Smith (Ed.), Variety of memory & consciousness.
(pp 252-267). London: Penguin.
Book: No author
Title. Date. Place: Publisher.
Oxford English Dictionary. (2003). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Article: Journal has a volume number and an issue number
Author. Date. Title of article. Title of journal, volume (and issue) number, page reference.
Kruger, J.P. (1988). Sexism in advertising. Communicare, 7(2), 12-15.
Article: Newspaper - Author (name of reporter/author is known)
Author. Date, including month & day. Title of article. Title of newspaper, page reference.
Stewart, M.T. (1988, May 17th
). Privatisation in the dock. The Guardian, p.12.
Article: Newspaper - anonymous (no name of reporter/author)
Title of article. Date, including month & day. Title of newspaper, page reference.
New drug appears to sharply cut the risk of death from heart failure. (1993, July 30th)
The Washington Post, p. 4.
Comment [KHEI2]: Please note that
this should be author of the chapter and not
the editor of the book
Author. Date (created/last updated). Title of website. Date you retrieved the information.
Full web address
Brown, K. (2005). Teaching and Learning. Retrieved March 6th
, 2006 from:
Article: Internet anonymous - (no name of reporter/author)
Title of Website Organisation. Date (created/last updated). Title of article. Date you
retrieved the information. Full web address
Home Office (2010). Clever fakes found at Heathrow. Retrieved September 15th, 2010
4. Conference Papers
Author. Date Title of paper. Title of conference (in italics). Location and date of
conference. Place of Publication: Publisher. Page references.
Edwards, G. (2008) Poverty in developed nations, Tackling social problems in the
developed world: The 12th
Annual UK Social Policy Conference. University of Leeds 12-
14 October. Cambridge: The Cambridge Institute for Social Development, 56-67.
Don’t forget that your final reference list MUST be in alphabetical order, with the author’s
SURNAME followed by the initial(s) of the first name. If you are unsure about which name is the
surname, remember that it will come after the first name in the publication.
Dogancay, S. (2005). Intercultural communication in English language teacher
education. English Language Teaching Journal, 59(2), 28-36.
Home Office (2010). Clever fakes found at Heathrow. Retrieved September 15th,
2010 from: http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/media-centre/news/heathrow-fakes
Li, Y. (2006). Chinese learners as seen from the perspective of a visiting
Chinese lecturer. The East Asian Learner, 2(2), pp109-117
Rao, Z. (2001). Matching teaching styles with learning styles in East Asian
contexts. The Internet TESL Journal, 7/7. Retrieved May 19th
, 2008 from:
Smith, M. and Casey, G. (1990). A study skills handbook. Oxford: Oxford
Swan, B., Bell, M. and Watson, S. (2001). Learner English. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Comment [KHEI3]: Please not that this
is a journal. The journal title is in italics but
the article title is not.
Comment [KHEI4]: Please note that
this is an internet article. The article title is
Comment [KHEI5]: Please note that
this is an e-journal and not available in
print. This is why the URL is necessary
Comment [KHEI6]: Please note that
this is a book so the book title is in italics