MGT2OBE-Management-Organisational Behaviour

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  • ›Organisational Behaviour
    Week 6
    STRESS – Chp 4
    ›Learning Objectives
    •Explain stress. Explain and give examples of common stressors in the workplace.
    •Describe outcomes of stress as related to the general adaptation syndrome and long-term exposure to stress.
    •Describe various stressors and explain how these are linked to the workplace.
    •Explain strategies that individuals and organisations can help to manage stress.
    ›What is Stress?
    ›“An adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to the person’s wellbeing.” (McShane et al., 2010: 139)
    ›Perception that demands of the environment exceed the resources of the individual (e.g., Lazarus, 1999)
    ›Negative stress or Distress arises from negative events
    ›Positive stress or Eustress arises from positive events
    ›Model of Stress
    ›Work Stressors: Interpersonal Stressors
    •Interpersonal stressors are a common source of workplace stress
    •Interpersonal stressors include
    –Poor team dynamics
    –Organisational politics
    –Negligent bosses
    –Workplace violence/bullying
    –Psychological harassment
    –Sexual harassment
    ›Work Stressors: Role-related
    ›Role-related stress arises from perceptions of demands and obligations of work roles
    ›Role Conflict
    ›Arises from incongruity or incompatibility of expectations and role
    ›Role Ambiguity
    ›Arises when role demands are unclear or unknown
    ›Role Overload
    ›Arises when roles compete for time, quantity, and quality of attention
    ›Work Stressors: Task, Organisational, Environment
    •Task-related stressors occur employees have little control over how and when they perform their tasks.
    •Organisational stressors can result from significant events in the organisation.
    •The physical work environment can be a source of stress.
    ›Relationship of Work and Non-work Stressors
    ›Work stressors can combine and interact with non-work factors
    ›Spillover from home to work (or from work to home)
    ›Time conflict
    ›Role behaviour conflict
    ›Individual Differences in Response to Stress
    ›Not everyone reacts the same way to the same stressor.
    ›People have different thresholds of resistance to stressor
    ›People have different perceptions of the situation
    ›Challenge: perceive have sufficient resources, ability, etc.,
    ›Threat: perceive have insufficient resources, ability, etc.
    ›People have different coping strategies
    ›Consequences of Stress
    ›General Adaptation Syndrome (Selye) – See Exhibit 4.5

    ›Consequences of Stress
    ›Chronic  or long-term exposure to stress diminishes individual’s resistance, which can result in adverse consequences
    ›Consequences of Stress: Job Burnout
    ›Developing a Stress Management Plan
    ›Stress Management: Remove the Stressor
    •Removing the stressor is actually eliminating or preventing it from occurring.
    •Organisations can help reduce stressors
    –Develop culture of respect and empowerment
    –Develop trustworthy conflict-resolution process
    –Screen job applicants for past incidents related to harassment
    –Conduct stress audits to investigate sources of stress
    –Use multi-source (360-degree) feedback to identify stressful situations and harassing behaviours
    –Use work-life balance
    ›Stress Management: Withdraw from Stressor
    ›Withdrawal from the stressor involves taking a break or removing the person from the stressful situation.
    ›Permanent withdrawal
    ›Remove employees from jobs not aligned with their competencies
    ›Temporary withdrawal
    ›Coffee/lunch breaks
    ›Stress Management: Other
    •Change stress perceptions
    –Increase self-confidence and self-efficacy
    –Learn how to change appraisals of stressful situations from threat to challenge
    •Increase social support
    –Emotional or informational
    •Control stress consequences
    –Relaxation, meditation, exercise
    –Stress management training
    –Medical assistance