ATS 3778 Englishes in the Global Context assignment 代写

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  • ATS 3778 Englishes in the Global Context assignment 代写

    Week 1: Unit introduction: Models of World Englishes

    1. What is the Unit ‘ATS3778’ about? (See Unit Guide)
    2. ATS3779 Englishes in the Global Contextis a newly amended unit, previously entitled World Englishes (as a‘capstone’ unit)for the LLCL undergraduate major of English as an International Language (EIL)[i]. Given the rapid development in the field of World Englishes, we have incorporated and adopted new materials, emerging issues, and innovative approaches into this unit.
    3. ATS3778is about ‘linguistic diversity’ and multiculturalismin the sense that different languages have an impact on the use of English and the cultures associated with speakers of different Englishes. In the era of globalization, it is important to realize that ‘World Englishes’ is not just about different accents, or different expressions, but about different intercultural pragmatics, different worldviews, and different cultural conceptualizations.
    4. ATS3778 represents a paradigm shift from ‘English’ to ‘Englishes’, and it has implications for English as an International Language, English language teaching and learning, and intercultural communication using English as a Lingua Franca (ELF).
    5. ATS3779 is also about all of us …
    1. Definitions of World Englishes, and the World Englishes (WE) paradigm
    1. The term World Englishes is used “for the diversity of varieties around the world today.” It indicates “the multiplex nature of English by adopting a plural noun” (Seargeant, 2010, p. 97)
    1. The term ‘World Englishes’ refers to the many varieties of the English language that have been developed and used across the globe. (Sharifian, in press)
    1. A social variety of English is not an “interlanguage”, but a “dynamic cline, an element of the world Englishes family” (Proshina, 2014, p. 2)
    1. The World Englishes (WE) paradigm
    “We are currently witnessing the enormously dynamic, ongoing expansion of English, which started out in the colonial period since the seventeenth century, gained in strength after decolonization in the second half of the twentieth century, and, interestingly enough, gained even more momentum in the early twenty-first century” (Scheider, 2014, p. 9)
    The World Englishes (WE) paradigm “shook the 20th century” for at least two decades, and it “revolutionized the linguistic, sociocultural, and educational world, and has had a great impact on theory and practice of the new millennium” (Proshina, 2014, p. 1).
    The acronym WE serves as a symbol of the principle of inclusivity that is the cornerstone of the World Englishes paradigm. It is “inclusive of all varieties and variants of English, of many cultures and ethnicities, of many topics and subjects, of various approaches and perspectives” (Proshina, 2014, p. 2)
    WE researchers are interested in “intelligibility of form, comprehensibility of meaning and interpretability of sense” of different varieties of English (Proshina, 2014, p. 4).
    Under the World Englishes paradigm, there have been shifts: from “correctness” to “appropriateness” as didactic principles of language teaching; and from a “perfect near-native speaker” to a “successful user of English”(Proshina, 2014, p. 4)
    Proshina(2014, p. 1)summarizes the salient features of the WE paradigm: 1) diversity of Englishes; 2) pluricentricity of the language; 3) domineering of a dynamic functionality over a static prescriptive approach; 4) change of the goal of ELT and learning; 5) change of the native speaker concept; and 6) the integration of English Language Teaching (ELT) with intercultural communication studies.
    1. A brief history of World Englishes
    The Oxford English Dictionary ( ), OED, has archived the term English as a count noun, with its plural form Englishes since 1910.
    As a count noun: a variety of English used in a particular context or (now esp.) a certain region of the world; (in pl.) regional varieties of English considered together, often in contradistinction to the concept of English as a language with a single standard or correct form.
    1910   H. L. Mencken in Baltimore Evening Sun 10 Oct. 6/8 (heading) The two Englishes.
    1941   W. Barkley (title) Two Englishes; being some account of the differences between the spoken and the written English languages.
    1964   Eng. Stud. 45 21   Many people side-step the recognition of a plurality of Englishes by such judgments as: ‘Oh, that's not English, that's American.’
    1978   J. Pride Communicative Needs in Learning & Use of Eng. 1 The role of literature in non-native Englishes may be focal.
    1984   Eng. World-wide 5 248 An overview of some aspects of various Englishes suggesting areas of possible research.
    2000   Independent (Nexis) 28 June 11 It was one of the first places to be settled in the Plantations; there's an English spoken there that's unique. (
    It is worth noting that this OED entry is by no means a comprehensive archive of the term Englishes. Indeed, a ground-breaking journal was established in 1985, and its title is World Englishes (co-edited by BrajKachru and Larry Smith.
    Englishes, in the sense of World Englishes, started in the 1960s. In December, 1961, University of Edinburgh, Braj B. Kachru, defended his PhD dissertation “An analysis of some features of Indian English: A study in linguistic method”. This is a “pioneering work”, claiming the existence of Standard Indian English as a variety. Kachru(1961, p. 287)has defined Indian English as “the English of those Indians who speak/write English as L2 and who range above the Central point on the cline of bilingualism”.Kachru later had two seminal publications based on his doctoral research work, including a journal paper ‘The Indianness in Indian English’ (Word, 21, pp. 391-410), and a book with the same title in 1966.
    ‘World Englishes’, as an academic discipline, started in the early 1980s, as a result of two conferences/books, and the establishment of three journals. These include the conference organized by the East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, in April, 1978, and the conference organized in the University of Illinois, in June and July, 1978. Two edited volumes came out of the conferences, including “English for Cross-cultural Communication” (Smith, 1981), and “The Other Tongue: English across Cultures” (Kachru, 1982). There are three journals on the overarching theme of World Englishes, including World Englishes, English World-Wide, and Asian Englishes. In addition, other journals, e.g., English Today, ELT Journal, TESOL Quarterly, Changing English, the International Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, the International Journal of Language and Culture also publish articles on World Englishes.
    Since the first IAWE (International Association of World Englishes) held its first conference in Urbana/Champaign (US) in 1992, a total of 21 conferences have been organized in the past two and half decades in various cities including Nagoya, Honolulu, Singapore,Urbana/Champaign, Tsukuba, Portland, Johannesburg, Urbana/Champaign, Syracuse, West Lafayette, Nagoya, Regensburg, Hong Kong, Cebu, Vancouver, Melbourne, Hong Kong and Guangzhou, Tempe, Delhi, Istanbul, and the 22nd IAWE conference (2017) will be at Syracuse University, NY, USA.
    5. Models of World Englishes
    a. Strevens’ world map of English (first published in 1980)
    a map of the world, superimposed by an upside-down tree diagram “demonstrating the way in which, since American English became a separate variety from British English, all subsequent Englishes have had affinities with either one or the other.” (Jenifer Jenkins, 2009, p. 17)
    b. McArthur’s circle model (1987)
    This ‘model’ has its centre World Standard English which “does not exist in an identifiable form at present” (Jenifer Jenkins, 2009, p. 17). Moving outwards comes next a band of eight regional varieties including both standard and standardising forms. Each of the regional varieties comprises a “crowded fringe of subvarieties” (McArthur, 1998, p. 95).
    c. Kachru’s three-circle model (1985, 1988, 1992)
    This ‘model’ has been considered the most useful and influential. Kachru divides World Englishes into three concentric circles, the Inner Circle, the Outer Circle and the Expanding Circle. The three circles ‘represent the types of spread, the patterns of acquisition, and the functional allocation of English in diverse cultural contexts’ (Kachru, 1992, p. 356), as the language travelled from Britain, in the first diaspora to the other ENL countries (together with the UK these constitute the Inner Circle), in the second diaspora to the ESL countries (the Outer Circle) and, more recently, to the EFL countries (the Expanding Circle). In other words, the spread of English has been a result of migration, colonization and globalization.
     ATS 3778 Englishes in the Global Context assignment 代写
    Limitations of the ‘three-circle model’ (summarized by Jenkins, 2015, pp. 15-16)
    1. The model is based on geography and history rather than on the way speakers currently identify with and use English. (there are speakers of all three circles in each of the three circles)
    2. There is often a grey area or an overlap between the Inner and Outer Circles
    3. There is also an increasingly grey area between the Outer and Expanding Circles (countries in transition from EFL to ESL, e.g., Argentina, Belgium, Costa Rica, Denmark, Sudan, and Switzerland etc.)
    4. Many speakers of World Englishes grow up bilingual or multilingual, which makes it difficult to describe any language in their repertoire as L1, L2, or L3.
    5. The model implies that the situation is uniform for all countries within a particular circle whereas this is not so. E.g., in the Outer Circle, countries differ in a number of respects such as whether English is spoken mainly by an elite, as in India, or is more widespread, as in Singapore; or whether it is spoken by a single L1 group leading to one variety of English as in Bangladesh, or by several different L1 groups leading to several varieties of English as in India.
    6. The term “Inner Circle” implies that speakers from the ENL countries are central to the effort, however, Kachru did not intend the term “inner” to be taken to imply any sense of superiority.
    Schneider’s (2014; 2003)Dynamic Model (emerging varieties proceed through five consecutive stages):
    1) Foundation; 2) Exonormativestablilization; 3) Nativization; 4) Endonormative stabilization; 5) Differentiation.
    Other newer models, e.g. Ahn’s shifting circles model; Modiano’s centripetal circles model; Graddol’ proficiency model; Pennycook’s 3D transtextual model; and Mahboob’s language variation framework
    Kachru, Braj B. (1961). An analysis of some features of Indian English: A study in linguistic method. (PhD ), University of Edinburgh.  
    Proshina, Zoya G. (2014). Language revolution behind the cultural curtain. World Englishes, 33(1), 1-8.
    Scheider, Edgar W. (2014). New reflections on the evolutionary dynamics of world Englishes. World Englishes, 33(1), 9-32.
    Schneider, Edgar. (2003). The dynamics of New Englishes: from identity construction to dialect birth. Language, 79(2), 233-281.
    Seargeant, Philip. (2010). Naming and defining in world Englishes. World Englishes, 29(1), 97-113.
    Sharifian, Farzad. (in press). World Englishes (an entry for the SAGE Encyclopaedia of Intercultural Competence) SAGE Encyclopaedia of Intercultural Competence: SAGE.

    [i] The EIL major has 8 core units, including two ‘gateway’ units: ATS1291 Communication in international languages; ATS1292 Englishes for global communication; two ‘cornerstone’ units: ATS2769 English as an international language; ATS2770 English as an international language: Language and globalisation; two ‘capstone’ units: ATS3779 Cultural linguistics, and  ATS3780Language and education; and two other level 3 units: ATS3778 Englishes in the Global Context, and ATS3781 Writing across Cultures.
    ATS 3778 Englishes in the Global Context assignment 代写