International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Educatio

  • 100%原创包过,高质量代写&免费提供Turnitin报告--24小时客服QQ&微信:273427
  • International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education代写
    International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE) 
    ISSN: 2252-8822 
    Journal homepage: 
    Improving Students’ Creative Thinking and Achievement 
    through The Implementation of Multiple Intelligence  
    Approach with Mind Mapping  
    I Wayan Widiana1
    , I Nyoman Jampel
    Primary Teacher Education Department, Ganesha University of Education, Bali, Indonesia 
     Education Technology Departement, Ganesha University of Education, Bali, Indonesia 
      This  classroom  action  research  aimed  to  improve  the  students’  creative 
    thinking  and  achievement  in  learning  science.  It  conducted  through  the 
    implementation  of multiple  intelligences with mind mapping  approach  and 
    describing  the  students’  responses.  The  subjects  of  this  research  were  the 
    fifth  grade  students  of  SD  8  Tianyar  Barat,  Kubu,  and  Karangasam.  The 
    objects  of  this  research were multiple  intelligence,  achievement  in  science 
    and students’ response. The research was conducted in two cycles and every 
    cycle  consisted  of  planning,  action  implementation,  observation,  and 
    reflection.  The  data  of  students’  creative  thinking  were  collected  by 
    performance test; the data of students’ achievement in learning science were 
    collected through questionnaire. After the data were collected, then they were 
    analyzed  descriptively  and  quantitatively.  The  results  of  the  study  showed 
    that  (1)  the  implementation of multiple  intelligence  approach  improved  the 
    students’  creative  thinking  and  achievement  in  learning  science.  The 
    improvement  in  the  students’  creative  thinking  from  cycle  I  to  cycle  II  is 
    16.56%.  (2)  The  improvement  of  the  students’  achievement  in  learning 
    science from cycle I to cycle II is 11.46%. (3) The students’ response to the 
    implementation of multiple intelligence with mind mapping fell into category 
    positive.The  students  felt  happy  in  learning  science  through  the 
    implementation of multiple intelligences with mind mapping. 
    The  task  faced  in  the education sector  today  is  to  improve  the quality of human  resources. Hence, 
    education  has  a  strategic  position  in  developing  a  nation  since  its  target  is  improvement  of  the  quality  of 
    human  resources  (Tirtarahardja  &  Sulo  [1];  Muharam  [2]).  The  improvement  of  the  quality  of  human 
    resources has to start from elementary school as the foundation to move on to the next levels. However, the 
    results  of  some  research  showed  that  the  quality  of  education  at  elementary  schools  is  low.  Trends 
    International Mathematics  and  Sciences  Study  (TIMSS),  an  institution  that measures  educational  outcome 
    throughout world, reports that the ability of the Indonesian students of elementary schools in Indonesia ranks IJERE   ISSN: 2252-8822   
    Improving Students' Creative Thinking and Achievement Through the Implementation  .... (I Wayan Widiana) 
    33 from 38 countries that were surveyed (Nurhadi) [3]. In mathematics and reading abilities, Indonesia ranks 
    39  from 41  countries  that were  surveyed  (Indonesian National Education)  [4]. The development  index  for 
    education for all according to UNESCO in EFA Global Monitoring Report2011 shows that Indonesia ranks 
    67  from  127  countries  that  were  surveyed  [5].  Reflecting  on  the  low  quality  of  education  at  elementary 
    schools, then it is the critical time for educational theorists and educators, especially at elementary schools to 
    immediately make  innovative  and  creative  breakthroughs  at  elementary  schools.  Education  at  elementary 
    schools is the foundation in developing every aspect of intelligence of the students.  
    Gardner  [6] Marlina  [7]  states  that  intelligence  has  seven  components. The  seven  components  of 
    intelligence are called multiple intelligence that consists of linguistic-verbal intelligence, logical-mathematic 
    intelligence,  spatial-visual  intelligence,  rhythmic  music  intelligence,  kinesthetic  intelligence  and 
    interpersonal intelligence. In a further development, Gardner added two more intelligences, namely naturalist 
    intelligence and existential intelligence. Many people think that to reach a high achievement in learning, one 
    has a high Intelligence Quotient (IQ). The assumption is IQ is a potential asset which will facilitate learning 
    and in its turn will produce an optimum ability. However, in reality, it is a low predictor of intelligence since 
    it only measures an individual’s linguistic- verbal and logical-mathematic abilities. An individual with a very 
    strong verbal ability (language and humanities and mathematical logical deduction (mathematics and science) 
    maybe does not have interpersonal ability to agree with other people, to develop networks, to communicate, 
    to end a dispute  and  to encourage others. Maybe he or  she does not have  intrapersonal ability  (  to control 
    oneself)  to  overcome  and  learn  from  a  failure  to  reflect  on  him/herself  and  motivate  him/herself.  Some 
    students are not creative enough, innovative enough to see the future to anticipate a unique problem. This is 
    the most  important  skill  to  succeed  in  any  profession  (Lewin)  [8]. Hence,  IQ  is  not  the  only  factor  that 
    determines one’s success, since other factors also have an effect on it (Harefa) [9]. 
    Goleman  states  that  IQ contributes only 20%  to  success, while  the  rest or 80%  is  the contribution 
    from other factors, among other things, emotional intelligence or Emotional Quotient (EQ), namely ability to 
    motivate  oneself,  to  overcome  frustration,  to  control  desire,  to  control  mood,  to  empathize,  and  to 
    collaborate. It seems that IQ  is not the absolute guarantee in determining an individual’s success, especially 
    in developing knowledge  [10]. Currently, people are aware  that an  individual needs  to develop EQ and SQ 
    (Spiritual Quotient) in addition to IQ (Suparno) [11]. Hence, in order to become a person with a good quality, 
    he or she needs to improve the three intelligences in balance. Education plays the role of improving the three 
    intelligences of the students, in order we can improve the quality of education. 
    In the context of improvement of the quality of education, including that of elementary schools, the 
    government  has  done  various  efforts,  including  to  change  the  curriculum,  from  content  oriented  to 
    competence oriented which has now been developed in school-based curriculum. In addition, the government 
    also makes other efforts  such as  improving  infrastructures and  facilities,  trainings  ( PLPG and PPG), KKG 
    (teachers work group), etc.  
    Those  efforts  are  directed  toward  teachers  because  they  are  the  spearheads  that move  forward  to 
    produce quality human resources. Teachers as the major component of education should be able to give the 
    best  to  their students. Their  role  is not only as  the giver of knowledge, but  they have  to be able  to  interact 
    psychologically  with  the  students.  Success  in  the  educational  process  starts  with  progressive  ideas  and 
    knowledge which later will support individual’s ability to think. In addition, the teaching of moral values has 
    to  be  done  parallel  to  the  individual’s  development.  This  is  to  keep  the  individual  on  the  right  track  in 
    conformity with the norms in education, especially in the community in general. If all of the components in 
    education can be synergized and proceed together with creative thinking process , then education can develop 
    sustainably. Hence,  education  plays  a  very  important  role  to  develop  students  to  become  creative  with  a 
    broad range of knowledge, in order that they can compete in the globalization era.  
    Creative  and  anticipative  attitude  on  the  part  of  the  teachers  are  suspected  to  be  less  optimal, 
    especially  in  elementary  education.  This  has  an  impact  on  the  low  quality  of  the  process  and  product  of 
    learning  including  that  in  science  at  elementary  schools,  that  becomes  the  object  of  criticism  both  by 
    educators and educational experts. They state that both the quality and quantity of elementary school science 
    falls  into  low category  (Suparno, 2004). The  low quality product of science  learning can also be seen  from 
    scores  for daily evaluation done by  the classroom  teachers. The  lowest score of science daily evaluation of 
    the fifth grade students of SD No. 8 Tianyar Barat , Kubu Karangasem for daily evaluation 1 was 30 and the 
    highest score was 70.50 and  the mean score was 58.40. For daily evaluation 2,  the  lowest score was 58.40 
    and the highest score was 85.00 while the mean score was 64.                    ISSN: 2252-8822 
    IJERE  Vol. 5, No. 3, September 2016 :  246 – 254 
    Based on the two daily evaluations scores it seems that the mean score for the daily evaluation was 
    not  optimal,  since  many  students  (60%)  of  20  students  had  score  less  than  the  minimal  completeness 
    criterion. One of the causes of the less than optimal learning achievement shown by daily evaluation scores 
    was caused by low students’ thinking creativity and understanding of elementary school science.  
    The low science learning achievement was caused by many factors as follows. First,  teacher in the 
    teaching process did not optimally elicit the students’ prior knowledge and did not relate concepts or topics to 
    be  taught  to  the students’  real world.  In addition,  the students were not sufficiently guided  to connect  their 
    knowledge  and  the  implementation of concepts  taught. This  is  the  same  as what Mariawan  states  [12]. He 
    states  that  teachers  seldom  consider  the  students’  prior  knowledge.  The  effect  of  the  teaching  is  that  the 
    concepts taught are abstract, so that they are difficult to be integrated with concepts that have been structured 
    in  the  students’ minds. On  the other hand, when  the  teachers are able  to connect  the concepts or materials 
    learned  to  the  students’  real  life  and  their  environment,  this will  help  them  in  developing  their  naturalist 
    Dimyati  and Mudjiono  stated  that  the  learning  result  is  the  peak  of  the  learning  process.  Such  a 
    learning result mainly follows from the evaluation made by the lecturer, and also constitutes the result of the 
    interaction between  the  learning act and  teaching act [13]. Woodworth and Marquis stated  that  the  learning 
    result is the actual ability which can be directly measured from a test [14]. Nasution stated that the learning 
    achievement  refers  to  someone’s mastery  of what  he/she  knows  or  a  particular  skill  in  a  lesson, which  is 
    commonly obtained  from  the  test-based mark or  score provided by  the  lecturer  [15]. Bloom, as quoted by 
    [16], “classified the learning achievement into three better-known as the Bloom’s taxonomy, which is made 
    up of the cognitive domain, the affective domain, and the psychomotoric domain”. The cognitive domain is 
    concerned with the student’s intellectual learning achievement which covers six aspects; they are knowledge, 
    concept,  application,  analysis,  synthesis,  and  evaluation. The  cognitive  domain was  revised  by  [16]  better 
    known as the Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy. Thus, the inferential statistic learning achivement is the cognitive 
    ability which  the  students  of  the Department  of  the  Pre-school Teachers’ Training,  Faculty  of Education, 
    Ganesha University  of  Education,  have  after  attending  the  inferential  statistic  learning within  a  period  of 
    time. Such ability includes the ability to understand, analyze, and apply what is learned.  
    Secondly,  another  cause  of  the  low  quality  of  the  process  and  product  of  science  teaching  at 
    elementary  schools  is  the  fact  that  some  teachers  do  not  pay  enough  attention  to  the  nature  of  science  as 
    process  and  product. Learning  science  involves  ability  and  skill  to  interpret  physical  bodies,  to  transform 
    magnitudes, units, mathematical logic, and numeration ability accurately (Santyasa) [17]. This means that it 
    is not enough  to memorize or  to  learn  theories alone, but  it also  involves  the students  in direct experiences 
    through real activities. 
    Thirdly, the teaching tends to use conventional approach. Conventional teaching is the teaching that 
    still  stresses on  intellectual  intelligence only, while emotional  intelligence and  spiritual  intelligence are not 
    given enough attention. According to Gardner, the limitation of conventional way of thinking is corrected by 
    substituting  the  concept  of  single  intelligence  with multiple  intelligence  [18].  Every  student  surely  has  a 
    different  profile  of  intelligences  from  others.  So  far,  the  students  who  are  called  the  ones  with  a  high 
    intelligence are only those with a high logic-mathematic intelligence and verbal intelligence. This . of course, 
    will  cause  it  difficult  for  the  students  without  a  high  logic-mathematic  intelligence  and  a  high  verbal 
    intelligence  to  develop  (Sumertini)  [19]. Every  individual  certainly will  have  certain  intelligences  that  are 
    higher  than other  intelligences. The  teacher’s  role  is  to help every child  to develop at  least  seven  from  the 
    multiple  intelligence  and  he  or  she  ,  of  course,  should modify materials  to  fit  in  these  intelligences.  The 
    teaching that does not accommodate the students’ intelligences will cause a low students’ motivation to learn. 
    This  is  seen  in  the  students who  are  less  enthusiastic  to  learn,  only  5%  of  26  students were  active  in  the 
    process  of  teaching  and  learning.  Thus,  there  is  a  need  to  find  a  solution  by  using  a  relevant  teaching 
    approach, to increase the students’ creative thinking and understanding.  
    The  relevant  approach  to  this  is  multiple  intelligence  teaching  approach.  Operationally,  this 
    approach  is  analyzed  into  5  phases:  question  possibilities,  target  improvement,  expect  quality,  more 
    resources, and reflect for growth possibility (Weber) [20]. In the question possibilities, the students are given 
    questions  based  on  topics  according  to  interest  and  ability,  for  example,  to  relate  them  to  their  daily  life. 
    Thus,  they  can  become more  interested  and  know  what  they  learn.  In  this  phase,  the  students;  naturalist 
    intelligence can be elicited. In the target improvement phase, the students are given a target that they have to IJERE   ISSN: 2252-8822   
    Improving Students' Creative Thinking and Achievement Through the Implementation  .... (I Wayan Widiana) 
    learn  thoroughly  in  learning  such  as  competence  standard,  basic  competences,  and  indicators.  In  expect 
    quality, the students are given an evaluation and steps in learning to motivate them in learning. In the move 
    resources,  the students solve problems posed  in  the  first phase,  for example,  to do an experiment, and  then 
    analyze it. In this phase, the teacher can elicit logic-mathematic intelligence from analyzing the result of the 
    experiment,  linguistic  intelligence,  in  the  form  of  students’  kinesthetic  intelligence  by  playing  a  role  and 
    interpersonal  intelligence  in  group  and  working  together.  In  reflect  for  growth  possibilities  phase,  the 
    students reflect on  themselves by answering problems  individually so  that  the  teacher can understand every 
    student’s understanding about concepts learned. In this phase the teacher can elicit the students’ intrapersonal 
    intelligence. To optimize  results, multiple  intelligence  approach  is  integrated with mind mapping  in  every 
    phase. Mind mapping is a technique to record creatively that can optimize the students’ intelligence [21],[22]. 
    Furthermore,  according  to  Depotter,  et  al.,  [23]  mind  mapping  method  can  stimulate  the  mind  to  think 
    actively. This occurs  since mind mapping method  is parallel  to  the principle of  the natural working of  the 
    With these phases and the integration of mind mapping, the students are helped in developing their 
    intelligence. Hence, all of  their potentialities will easily construct  their understanding of  the  concepts  they 
    learn. The students with understanding of  the concepts  learned will automatically  improve  their knowledge 
    and this in its turn will lead to an improvement in the students’ knowledge and will lead to the improvement 
    of te students’ learning achievement. 
    The  subjects  of  this  study were  all  of  the  fifth  grade  students  of SD No.  8 Tianyar Barat, Kubu, 
    Karangasem in the even semester in the academic year 2011/2012 with the total number of 20 students. The 
    object  of  the  study  consisted  of  1) multiple  intelligence  teaching  approach  aided with mind mapping,  2) 
    creative  thinking skill, 3) science  learning achievement, and 4) students’  response  to  the  implementation of 
    multiple intelligence teaching aided by mind mapping.  
    The classroom action research was conducted  in  two cycles. Every cycle consisted of four phases: 
    (1)  planning,  action,  observation/evaluation  and  reflection  (Kemmis  and  Taggart)  [24].  The  planning 
    consisted of  (1) collaboration with school principal and  the  fifth grade science  teacher of SD No 8 Tianyar 
    Barat,  Kubu,  Karangasem,  (2)  observation  of  the  fifth  grade  students  in  the  school  year  2011/2012,  (3) 
    analysis of the problems that were found authentically in the observation, (4) planning the implementation of 
    the Multiple Intelligence approach aided by mind mapping to solve the problems, (5) socializing the multiple 
    intelligence  approach  aided  by  mind  mapping  to  the  school  principal  and  the  fifth  grade  teacher  to  be 
    involved  in  the study, (6)  together  the fifth grade science  teacher decide  the  learning objectives, (7) writing 
    the instrument items, and (8) planning data collection techniques. 
    The  implementation of  the  action was done with  the  steps as  follows.  (1)  socializing  the  teaching 
    model the Multiple Intelligence Aided by Mind Mapping for topic :” Human Body Organs and Animal Body 
    Organs” to the students. (2) explaining that the teaching is done in groups. (3) Teaching: (a) teacher opens a 
    lesson  and  lets  the  students  to go  to  their  respective groups,  (b)  teacher  explains  to  the  students  about  the 
    steps  in  the  teaching  that will be  followed,  that  is by  using Multiple  Intelligence  approach  aided by mind 
    mapping,  (c)  teacher  explains  indicators,  learning  objectives,  and  stressing  the  advantages  that  will  be 
    obtained, (d) distributing student worksheets, and (e)  the students work  in  their groups solving problems  in 
    the student worksheet. 
    The observation/evaluation steps were as follows. (1) observing and evaluating the teaching process 
    by using Multiple Intelligence approach aided by mind mapping. Evaluation of the students’ activities was by 
    using mind mapping. (2) evaluating the students’ creative thinking by performance test, the students’ learning 
    achievement by learning achievement test. (3) evaluating the students’ responses to the implementation of the 
    teaching program  through questionnaire  and  interview,  and  (4)  evaluating  the  constraints  faced during  the 
    implementation of the action. 
    Reflection  was  done  at  the  end  of  every  teaching  and  the  end  of  each  cycle.  As  the  basis  for 
    reflection, the observation result, test result, and interview with the students about the difficulties they faced 
    during  the  lesson. The  result  of  reflection of  the  first  cycle was  used  as  the basis  for  improvement of  the 
    implementation of the action in the second cycle.                     ISSN: 2252-8822 
    IJERE  Vol. 5, No. 3, September 2016 :  246 – 254 
    In this study three types of instrument were used. They are (1) performance test to collect data about 
    creative  thinking  skill,  (2)  learning  test  to  collect  data  about  science  learning  achievement,  and  (3) 
    questionnaire  to  evaluate  the  students’  responses  to  the  implementation of Multiple  Intelligence Approach 
    aided by Mind Mapping. 
    Data about creative thinking skill, learning achievement, and the students’ responses were analyzed 
    descriptively  and  the  conclusion was  based  on  the mean  score  obtained  by  the  students.  The  criterion  of 
    success of the action for the creative thinking skill was that if the students’ minimal score falls into category 
    high. The criterion of success of action for learning achievement was if the students got the mean score ≥ 65 
    or Absorption Level ≥ 65% and Learning Mastery level ≥ 85%. The criterion of success of the action for the 
    students’ responses was if the students’ responses fall into positive category. 
    3.1.  Results 
    The  results of data  analysis  showed  that  the mean  score  for creative  thinking of  the  students was 
    16.0 with SD = 2.15. Based on  the  classification of  the  students’ creative  thinking  skill  that was  specified 
    before, creative thinking skill of the fifth grade students of SD 8 Tianyar Barat falls into category sufficient. 
    The distribution of the creative thinking skills of the students was: 10% very high, 40% high, 50% sufficient, 
    0% low and very low. In general, the mean score of the students’ creative thinking skill in cycle 1 falls into 
    category  sufficient and has not achieved  the  criterion of  success determined. The  criterion of  the  students’ 
    success was that the students’ scores at least fall into category high.  
    The result of data analysis showed that the mean score of creative thinking skill of the students was 
    18.65 with  SD  =  1.93.  In  cycle  II,  the  distribution  of  the  students’  scores was  8.8% with  SD  8.8% with 
    category very high, 20.6% with category high, 70.6% with category sufficient, and 0% with category low and 
    very low. In the end of the implementation of cycle II the mean score of the students’ creative thinking skill 
    of  the  fifth  grade  students  of  SD  9  Tianyar  Barat  falls  into  category  high  and  has  attained  the  specified 
    criterion of success.  
    The  result of analysis of  the  students’  learning achievement after  the  action  in cycle 1  in  the 100 
    point scale, the scores range from 50 to 80. The mean score M = 68.33, absorption level AL = 68.33%, SD = 
    4.92. Out of 20  students who  took  the  test  it was  found out  that  the  score distribution  for  science  learning 
    achievement  in  cycle  I  was  70%  had  mastered  the  material  completely  and  30%  did  not.  Based  on  the 
    mastery  level  specified  for  this  study  this  study was  not  successful  yet,  since  it  has  not  reached  the  85% 
    minimal mastery level. 
    The  result of analysis of  the  students’  learning achievement after  the action  in cycle  II  in  the 100 
    point scale,  the scores range from 60  to 90. The mean score M = 76.17, absorption  level AL= 78.89%, and 
    SD  =  13.10. Out  of  20  students  that  took  the  test  it was  found  out  that  the  score  distribution  for  science 
    learning achievement  in cycle  II was 95% had mastered  the material completely and 5% did not. Based on 
    the mastery level specified for this study, the study was successful.  
    The  analysis  of  the  students’  responses  shows  the  following  results.  The  mean  score  for  the 
    students’ responses was 42.60 with SD = 4.97. The score distribution for the students’ responses was positive 
    55%, sufficiently positive 45% , negative 0% and very negative 0%. Based on the specified classification of 
    the students’ responses, the responses of the fifth grade students of SD 8 Tianyar Barat to the implementation 
    of Multiple Intelligence approach aided by mind mapping falls into category very positive. The students said 
    that they liked to learn science through Multiple Intelligence aided by mind mapping. 
    3.2.  Discussion 
    The  results of  the  study  showed  that  improvements have occurred  in creative  thinking  skill  (CTS) 
    and learning achievement (LA). The result of data analysis showed that the students’ mean score for CTS in 
    Cycle  I was  16.00 with  SD  =  2.15  (sufficient  qualification).  The  students’ mean  score  for CTS  after  the 
    action  in cycle II was 18.65 with SD = 1.93 (high qualification). The  improvement occurred  in mean score 
    from  cycle  I  to  cycle  II  by  16.56%.  This  improvement  occurred  because  of  some  factors,  including  the 
    following  factors.  First,  the  teacher  gave  a  recognition  for  the  effort made  by  the  students,  the  students’ 
    participation,  and  the  students’  success  in  learning by giving  them  additional  scores. This  recognition  can IJERE   ISSN: 2252-8822   
    Improving Students' Creative Thinking and Achievement Through the Implementation  .... (I Wayan Widiana) 
    lead  to  the students’  self-confidence and  their positive perception  toward  the  teaching. Second, announcing 
    the  scores  at  the  end  of  a  learning  activity  makes  the  students  more  preared  to  compete  positively  in 
    achieving the goal or recognition and in obtaining better achievements in the next session. Third, the students 
    started  to  be  familiar with Multiple  Intelligence  teaching  approach  aided  by mind mapping.  Through  the 
    model  the  students could organize  knowledge  systematically, and make  it easy  for  them  to understand  the 
    material, and help them easy in presenting the result of their work, in discussion, and in making a conclusion 
    about the lesson. 
    The  students’  interaction  could  run  well  by  giving  them  opportunities  to  work  and  discuss.  In 
    addition,  at  the  discussion  time,  they would  exchange  opinions  based  on  logical  and  scientific  arguments. 
    This helps  the  students  to be more motivated  in  searching  relevant  sources  to  solve problems  and  to  give 
    better arguments. The learning process in the Multiple Intelligence approach aided by mind mapping improve 
    the  students’  creative  thinking  skill  to  learn  better.  This  makes  the  students  motivated  in  developing 
    themselves to get new knowledge.  
    The  results  of  this  study  also  showed  that  there  was  an  improvement  in  science  learning 
    achievement.  The mean  score  for  learning  achievement  after  cycle  I was  68.33,  the  absorption  level was 
    68.33%m SD = 4.92 and learning mastery level = 70.0%, which means it falls into non-mastery qualification. 
    On  the other hand,  the mean  score  for  the students’  learning achievement at  the end of cycle  II was 76.17, 
    absorption  level = 76.17%m SD = 7.16 and classical mastery  level = 95.0%, which means  that  it  falls  into 
    mastery qualification. An improvement occurred in the mean score in  the students’ learning achievement in 
    science from cycle I to cycle II by 11.46%. 
    The findings above shows that the implementation of teaching in cycle I was not optimal. This was 
    caused  by  some  factors.  First,  the  scarcity  of  books  to  support  the  students  in  learning  and  this  led  to 
    limitation  of  information  obtained  by  the  students  about  the material  they  learned.  Second,  basically,  the 
    students  still  adapted  to  the Multiple  Intelligence  approach  aided  by  mind  mapping  since  their  habit  of 
    learning  through  the  conventional  teaching model.  Third,  the  students  did  not  prepare  themselves well  at 
    home, this was caused by the  limitation of sources they had. Forth, less effective time management that the 
    teacher used. This was caused by the fact that the teacher had to give guidance to some students who had not 
    been  able  to  understand  students’  worksheet  well  which  made  the  implementation  of  teaching  less  than 
    Related  to  the  factors  that  caused  the  less  than  optimal  learning  achievement  in Cycle  I,  then  in 
    Cycle  II  some  effort  were  made  to  the  situation  as  follows.  1)  giving  guidance  more  intensively  to  the 
    students in solving problems in group, 2) giving more motivation to the students and relate the material to the 
    students’ real world, 3) giving more help such as a summary of the materials from various sources. 4) guiding 
    the students in writing mind maps. 5) encouraging the students to express their problems through a reflection 
    sheet to be discussed together.  
    The  result  of  analysis  of  the  students’  responses  showed  that  the  fifth  grade  students  of  SD  8 
    Tianyar Barat  to  the  implementation of Multiple  Intelligence  teaching model aided by mind mapping gave 
    positive responses. Based on  the result,  in general, the students were able to adapt to the implementation of 
    Multiple Intelligence teaching model aided by mind mapping. Through this model the students could develop 
    their critical thinking skill. The model, basically, stresses learning process that provides learning experiences 
    by acquiring knowledge or concepts from their experiences.  
    The  findings  are  parallel  to  the  empirical  evidence  from  the  previous  studies.  Kusmariyatni  & 
    Astawan in their studies found that the implementation of multiple intelligence teaching model can improve 
    the motivation of the third grade students at SD Laboratorium Undiksha in the school year 2010/2-12011 in 
    five  subjects  in  the  third  grade  [25]. Gayatri  shows  that multiple  intelligence  teaching model  has  a  better 
    effect  than  the  conventional  approach  on  the  tenth  grade  students’  physics  learning  achievement  at  SMA 
    Negeri 3 Singaraja in the school year 2008/2009 [26]. Sistiani finds that the implementation of mind mapping 
    can improve students’ creativity in writing, The students become creative in selecting topics , more creative 
    in developing main ideas and the writing is more readable [27]. Arinishows that the implementation of mind 
    mapping aided by direct objects can increase the forth grade students at SD4 Kampung Baru [28]. 
    Learning process through multiple intelligence model aided by mind mapping trains the students in 
    connecting materials to the real world and prior knowledge investigation is a method for finding out to what 
    extent  the  students  have  known  the  prerequisite  information  and  in  organizing  the  information  in  their 
    cognitive structures. Based on the prior knowledge the students have, the teacher only directs them to study                    ISSN: 2252-8822 
    IJERE  Vol. 5, No. 3, September 2016 :  246 – 254 
    the problems  and  to  follow  the  teaching process  seriously. Then  the  students  are  given  the opportunity  to 
    present  their ability based on  the materials  learned and  then  this  is continued by  the review of  the concepts 
    learned to solidify the concepts that they have constructed by themselves from the previous phase.  
    Conforming  to  the explanation and discussion above and based on  the  result of  reflection  that has 
    been done, the success in the implementation of Multiple Intelligence learning model aided by mind mapping 
    is  due  to  some  advantages  of  the model  as  follows.  (1) The Multiple  Intelligence  learning model  aide  by 
    mind  mapping  is  believed  to  be  able  to  improve  the  students’  creative  thinking  skill.  Through  the 
    implementation of  the model, the students’ minds are stimulated to do imagination, to express  ideas, and to 
    facilitate them in expressing concepts/ ideas in their minds. (2) The teacher can take the role of facilitator and 
    mediator  in  teaching  in  the  classroom more  optimally.  (3)  Through  the  implementation  of  the model  the 
    teacher  is  provided with  the  opportunity  to  administer  student  evaluation  objectively  through  observation. 
    Through an evaluation rubric the teacher can avoid subjectivity. (4) The model helps in teaching the students 
    to be more active and able to reflect on their learning activities, so that their minds can concentrate fully on 
    the learning process. (5). Through the production of mind maps  the students understand  the interconnection 
    of  concepts  that  are  learned.  (6)  Through  the  implementation  of  the  model,  the  teaching  and  learning 
    activities become more oriented and systematized and can  focus  the students’ attention  in  learning. (7) The 
    model provides opportunities to the students to learn according to what they want thro ugh investigation into 
    the  experiences  they  have  and  to make  use  of  the  experiences  as  the  prior  knowledge  to  conduct  further 
    learning activities.  (8) The model gives opportunities  to  the  students  to  learn according  to  their ability,  the 
    way to use an interactive process to decide on what the students can do. (9) 
    The model  gives  opportunities  to  the  students  to  be  active  in  learning,  to  interact  both  with  the 
    material, peers  and  teachers.  (10) The model gives  a  feeling of  comfort  to  the  students when  they  are not 
    brave enough to ask directly, so that the students can write their problems on the reflection sheets. 
    Some  constraints  or  limitations  encountered  during  the  course  of  this  study  by  implementing 
    Multiple Intelligence teaching aided by mind mapping are: (1) The teacher could not give guidance fairly to 
    the  students due  to  time  limitation.  (2) Some  topics make  it difficult  for  the  teacher  to  find  their contexts. 
    Based on this problem, the teacher is required to be more creative in finding contexts for the topics learned in 
    the daily life. (3) Some students were not used to making mind maps yet. (4) Some students were not used to 
    asking questions, expressing opinions, and discussing with peers. 
    Based  on  the  results  of  data  analyses  and  discussion,  the multiple  intelligence  teaching  approach 
    aided by mind mapping can  improve  the  fifth grade students’ creative  thinking skill at SD 8 Tianyar Barat, 
    Kubu, Karangasem. The creative  thinking skill  increased  from Cycle  I  to cycle  II by 16.56%. The multiple 
    intelligence  teaching approach aided by mind mapping could  increase  science  learning  achievement of  the 
    fifth  grade  students  of  SD  No  8  Tianyar  Barat,  Kubu,  Karangasem.  The  science  learning  achievement 
    increased  from Cycle  I  to Cycle  II by 11.46%. The  response given by  the  fifth grade  students of SD No 8 
    Tianyar Barat, Kubu, Karangasem  to  the multiple  intelligence  teaching model aided by mind mapping was 
    very  positive.  They  stated  that  they  enjoyed  learning  science  through  the  multiple  intelligence  teaching 
    approach aided by mind mapping.  
    Based on the results from this classroom action research, it can be suggested that (1) It is suggested 
    to the teachers to use the multiple-intelligence teaching approach aided by mind mapping s one of innovative 
    teaching models  in  the effort  to  improve  the students’ creative  thinking skill, (2) Further development (  for 
    researchers and teachers who would like to conduct classroom action research using the Multiple Intelligence 
    approach aided by mind mapping  it  is  suggested  that  they pay attention  to  the  results of  reflection on  this 
    classroom action  research. The  syntax of  instruction  should be adapted  to  the characteristics of  the  school, 
    classroom and students. 
    [1]  U. Tirtarahardja and L. Sulo, “Introduction to Education,” Jakarta, Rineka Cipta, 1995. 
    [2]  Y. Muharam, “Teacher Provisions Management  to Develop Good Quality of Elementary,” Journal, Fundamental 
    Education, vol. 14, 2010.  IJERE   ISSN: 2252-8822   
    Improving Students' Creative Thinking and Achievement Through the Implementation  .... (I Wayan Widiana) 
    [3]  Y. B. Nurhadi and A. G. Senduk, “Contextual Learning and  Its  Implementation  in KBK,” Malang, Malang State 
    University, 2004. 
    [4]  Depdiknas, “Strategic Plan of National Education Department Year 2005-2009,” Jakarta, Depdiknas, 2005. 
    [5]  Kompas, “Indonesia, Educaional Development Index for Everyone” Teasday, 25 of October 2011.  
    [6]  H. Gardner, “Multiple Intelligence,” Translation by Lyndon Saputra, Batam, Interaksara, 2003. 
    [7]  Marlina, “Multiple Intelligence (MI) as New Discourse,” Science Journal, 2004. 
    [8]  M. Lwin, A. Khoo, K. Lyen, C. Sim, “How to Multiply Your Child’s Intelligence,” Alih bahasa, Christine Sujana, 
    Jakarta, PT. Macanan Jaya Cemerlang, 2008. 
    [9]  F.  Harefa,  “Why  Emotionl  Intelligence  is  Important?,”  Emotionl 
    Intelligence is Important.html, 2009.  
    [10]  D.  Goleman,  “Working  with  Emotional  Intelligence,”  Tranlation  by  Alex  Tri  Kantjono  Widodo,  Jakarta,  PT 
    Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 2003. 
    [11]  P. Suparno, “Double Intelligence and Its’ Aplication on The School,” Yogyakarta, Kanisius, 2004. 
    [12]  I. M. Mariawan,  “The  Implementation  of  Contextual Approach  by  Setting  of    Cooperative  Learning Model  as 
    Efforts  to  Increasing  Physics  Learning  Quality  in  State  High  School  No.  2  Singaraja,”  Physics  Department 
    Research Report. State Institute of Learning and Teaching Singaraja, 2005. 
    [13]  Dimyati, Mudjiono, “Teaching and Learning,” Jakarta, Rineka Cipta, 2006. 
    [14]  E. Mahendra,  “The Effects  of Contextual Approach  and Way  of Thinking,”  Scientific  Journal  of  Learning  and 
    Education, 2007. 
    [15]  Nasution, “Various Approarch in Teaching and Learning Process,” Jakarta, Bina Aksara, 2001. 
    [16]  L. W. Anderson, D. W. Krathwohl., “A Taxonomy For Learning Teaching and Assesing, A Revision of Blomm’s 
    Taxonomy of Educational Objectives,” New York, Adison Weasley Longman, 2011. 
    [17]  I. W. Santyasa, “The Effect of Setting and Learnng Model toward Remidiasi Miskonsepsi, Concept Comprehention 
    and Physics Learning Outcome  in High School Students,” Learning Technology, Post Graduate Program, Malang 
    State University, 2004. 
    [18]  H. Gardner, “Multiple Intelligence,” Translation by Lyndon Saputra, Batam, Interaksara, 2003. 
    [19]  P.  E.  Sumertini,  “The  Effect  of  Multipe  Intelligence  in  Mathematics  Learning  toward  Students’  Learnng 
    Achievement  in VIII Class of  Junior High School No 2 Singaraja,” Singaraja, Ganesha University of Education 
    Singaraja, 2007. 
    [20]  E. Weber, “Five-Phases To PBL: MITA (Multiple Intelligence Teaching Approach) Model For Redesigned Higher 
    Education Classes,” 2008. 
    [21]  M. Alamsyah, “Accurate Tricts to Increasing Achievement by Mind Mapping,” Jogjakarta, Mitra Pelajar, 2009. 
    [22]  T. Buzan, “The Mind Map Book,” New York, Dutton, 1993. 
    [23]  B.  DePorter,  M.  Reardon,  S.  S.  Nourie,  “Quantum  Teaching:  Implement  Quantum  Learning  in  the  Class,” 
    Bandung, Kaifa, 2001. 
    [24]  W. C. Kemis, R. M. Taggart, “The action research planner. Geelong Victoria,” Deakin University, 1998. 
    [25]  N. Kusmariyatni, I. G. Astawan, “The Implementation of Multiple Intelligence  to Increasing Students’ Motivation 
    and Science Learning Outcome  at Third Grade Student  of LAB Elementary School  academic  year  2010/2011,” 
    Ganesha University of Education, 2010. 
    [26]  I. A. M. Gayatri, “The Effects of Multiple  Intelligence Approach  toward Students’ Physics Learning Outcome at 
    Ten Grade Student of High School No. 3 Singaraja Academic Year 2008/2009,” Ganesha University of Education, 
    [27]  A. A. H. Sistiani, “The Implementation of Mind Mapping Learning Model to Increasing Students’ Writing Naration 
    Learning  Achievement      at  Grade  Five  Student  of  Tunas  Daud  Elementary  School,”  Educational  Science  and 
    Learning Journal, vol/issue: 6(2), pp. 1450-1461, 2010. 
    [28]  N. W. Arini, “The Implementaion of Mind Mapping Assisted By Langung Object to Increasing Student’s Creativiti 
    and Ability of Writing Description at Four Grade Student of Elementary School No. 4 Kampung Baru,” Ganesha 
    University of Education, 2011. 
    International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education代写
                          ISSN: 2252-8822 
    IJERE  Vol. 5, No. 3, September 2016 :  246 – 254 
    Dr.  I Wayan Widiana,  S.Pd., M.Pd.  was  born  in  Badung,  October  10th
      1959.  He  worked  as 
    Rector at Ganesha University of Education. He was received Doctor  in Educational Evaluation 
    and Research  from  Jakarta  State University. He  also  as  lecturer  of  statistics, methodology  of 
    educational  research and evaluation  in various departments,  including  the Department of Early 
    Childhood  Education,  Department  of  Primary  Education,  Department  of  Educational 
    Technology, and the Department of Guidance and Counseling. 
    Dr.  I  Nyoman  Jampel, M.Pd.  was  born  in  Banjar  Sari  Tunas  Tianyar  village,  Kubu  district, 
    Karangasem  regency, Bali Province, on July 5th
    , 1985. He was  received Doctor  in Educational 
    Evaluation  and  Research  from  Jakarta  State University. He  worked  as  Lecturer  of  Statistics, 
    Methodology  of  Educational  Research  and  Evaluation  in  Department  of  Primary  Teacher 
    Education at Ganesha University of Education 
    International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education代写