第二，教师可以鼓励家长更多地参与残疾儿童的学习。父母可以做很多事情。首先，家长可以与学校建立一个安全和尊重的学习环境（科恩& spencine，2009）。事实上，澳大利亚的许多学校已经为残疾学生准备了一些项目和服务，例如辅助学校旅行计划、出勤计划、班级规模缩减计划、残疾计划等等（新南威尔士州教育，2013）。以辅助学校旅游计划为例。残疾学生谁不能从学校或旅行可以从辅助学校旅行计划中受益（ASTP）。区域起着重要的作用，为学生提供免费、专业的运输服务，家长不能为孩子提供全部或部分运输。残疾学生每天提供约2300辆个人交通服务，对新南威尔士学生免费。其次，家长应与学校及时和经常为了答谢他们的学习成果，以及他们的心理成长交流（科恩& spencine，2009）。残疾儿童往往感到比同龄人差。因此，他们在课堂上常常表现得很被动。被动的表现肯定是因为成绩差和评价不好。如果父母能对残疾儿童表现出同样的关心和积极的兴趣，他们的学业成绩就会提高。显示他们兴趣的关键是与学校交流。这种交流不仅发生在孩子们在学校的课程中遇到麻烦，而且当他们的孩子遇到一些心理问题时，比如与同龄人相处困难。
First of all, teachers must be sensitive to a wide variety of barriers in attitudes, architects and instructions that can prevent students with disability from making progress. The best way may be corporative learning. Cooperative learning is set up for a wide variety of goals, including motivating passive learners, reducing stresses compared to competitive methods, as well as promoting more engaged time and better peer relationships (Ashman & Elkins, 2012). Cooperative learning can help students with disability to learn a wide variety of skills, such as social skills including listening, negotiating and mediating, individual accountability, group interdependence and group processing. In addition, by means of face to face interaction, students with disability can gain positive values through equal participation (Cohen & Spencine, 2009). Cooperative learning paired tasks can facilitate students with disabilities with small group skills. At the same time, equal participation is useful in removing students’ attitudinal barriers. Although there are so many advantages of corporative learning, disadvantages still exist. When a group will be formed, a lot of issues often raise, such as how a group is allocated, how to evaluate and reflect, as well as how to acknowledge individuals’ achievement. As soon as those problems are handled improperly, more problems can occur. For example, when the achievement of a student with disabilities in a group is under evaluated, he or she may be self-abased and refuse not to take part in any group activities any more.
Secondly, teachers can encourage parents to engage in the learning of children with disabilities more. There is a lot that parents can do. First of all, parents can work with schools to establish a safe and respectable studying environment (Cohen & Spencine, 2009). As a matter of fact, many schools in Australia have prepared programs and services designed for students with disabilities, such as Assisted School Travel Program, Attendance Program, Class Size Reduction Program, Disability Program and so on and so forth (NSW state education, 2013). Take Assisted School Travel Program for example. Students with disability who can not travel to or from school can benefit from Assisted School Travel Program (ASTP). The ASTP plays an important role in providing students with free and specialized transport services where parents are not able to provide transport for their kids fully or partly. About 2,300 individual transport services are offered everyday for students with disabilities and they are free of charge to students in New South Wales. Secondly, parents should communicate with schools timely and frequently in order to acknowledge their learning outcomes as well as their psychological growth (Cohen & Spencine, 2009). Children with disabilities often feel inferior to their peers. Therefore, they often behave passively in classroom. Passive performance will certainly be due to poor grades and evaluation. If parents can show equal concerns and active interests to their disabled children, their school performance will improve. A key to show their interests is to communicate with schools. The communication should occur not only when their kids get in trouble in lessons at school, but also when their kids meet psychological issues, such as difficulty in engaging with peers.
In conclusion, as teachers, we should not only be sensitive to special needs of students with disabilities, but also care for their growth in collaboration with parents and schools.
C. What is the impact of having a disability? What might be the different perspectives of the stakeholders involved in the inclusion of students with special needs?
Having a disability may pose a wide variety of impacts to different groups. Benefits and limitations also vary. According to different relationships with students with disabilities, the issue of impacts will be analyzed from perspectives of students with special needs, parent of student with special needs, classmates, other students in school, teacher and principals as following