PHYS1160 Essays 代写
Essays should be between 1500 and 2000 words. The word limit should include
the text, figure captions, footnotes, but not the reference list (we are happy to see
lots of references). You will lose marks for going more than 10% over the word
The format of the essay is not specified. You are welcome to include section
headings and pictures. However try to ensure that they help to illustrate the
argument presented in the essay and are not mere adornment.
Your essay should be written for a well informed but non-specialist audience. The
style (not the format) used in popular science magazines such as Scientific
American or New Scientist would be a suitable guide. Remember, you are not
writing for experts, so if you use technical jargon you will need to explain it.
Refrain from using formulae, but instead explain concepts in your own words.
Essays are expected to show evidence of researching the topic beyond the
material presented in the lectures and textbook. The sources you use (websites,
journal articles, books) should be referenced. You should consistently use one of
the standard reference styles. One style is to number references sequentially in
the text and include a numbered list of references at the end of the essay. An
alternative is to mark references in the text using author and date e.g (Sagan,
1987) or Drake et al. (1965) and list references at the end of the essay in
If you use text from another source make it clear that it is a quote by placing it in
quotation marks and giving the reference to the source. However, you should not
make excessive use of quotes. The essay should be in your words and present
your views on the subject, not just an account of what other have said. Using text
from other sources without attribution is plagiarism and is not acceptable.
Your essay will use the TurnItIn system for submission that includes an
automatic test for plagiarism. Your submission will be checked against a large
database of material and tested for matches. Make sure that what you submit is
your own work and that any material from other sources is placed in quotation
marks and the source cited. Copying material from the web (even if you
subsequently make edits to it) is considered to be plagiarism and it is
unacceptable. Read more on the plagiarism policy from
TurnItIn is well designed to detect all plagiarism attempts!
TurnItIn gives a similarity score that indicates the percentage of the submission
matched to its database. While there may be legitimate reasons for matches
(such as quotations and references) we tend to be suspicious if we see a score
greater than about 30%.
Essays will be graded on:
o Degree of understanding of the topic (max. 6 marks)
o Quality and depth of research (max. 6 marks)
o Clarity of presentation (max. 6 marks)
o Original and outstanding coverage of the topic (max. 2 marks)
Essays are due before midnight on Sunday January 24th (end of week 6). They
should be submitted online through the submission box provided in the
Assessments page on Moodle. You can submit it in a range of file formats (MS
Word, WordPerfect, PDF, Postscript, HTML, RTF and plain text).
Essay Topics — Choose one of the following
1. Space Telescopes
Explain why astronomers put telescopes in space. Describe in detail one space
telescope that does not observe visible light and list its achievements. Discuss
major discoveries that were possible with astronomical observations made from
space and how they changed our understanding of Universe.
2. The Earliest Evidence for Life
Review the earliest evidence for life on Earth. What form does the evidence take
and where is it found. Discuss the controversies relating to some of this evidence
and give your conclusion on the earliest date at which we can be confident that
life was present on Earth.
3. Atmosphere Evolution on Rocky Planets
Compare evolution of atmosphere on Earth, Venus and Mars, and explain
differences in current atmospheric conditions on these planets. Describe how the
Earth’s atmosphere helped life to originate, survive and develop, and how has life
affected the atmosphere over time.
4. Life in Extreme Conditions
Explain what extremophile life forms are and where they are found on Earth. In
view of what we have learnt about extremophiles discuss the possibility of
extraterrestrial life in different places of our Solar system.
5. Key Space Missions
Choose ONE of the following space missions and give an account of the mission
describing the challenges it had to overcome and the mission’s achievements.
Describe in particular how it has influenced our understanding of the possibilities
of past or present life in the solar system.
o The Viking dual orbiter/lander mission to Mars.
o The Galileo orbiter/probe mission to the Jupiter system.
o The Cassini/Huygens mission to the Saturn system.
o The Mars Exploration Rover mission (Spirit and Opportunity rovers).
6. Exploration of Venus
Describe the history of missions to Venus and their achievements. How did we
learn about the thick atmosphere and high surface temperature of Venus and how
did we map its surface? Should we consider Venus as a possible site for life in our
7. Rosetta Mission
Explain why scientists study comets of the Solar system. Discuss the methods
applied in such studies. Describe the Rosetta mission and argue its importance in
understanding the history of our Solar system and development of life on Earth.
8. Space Weather
Our Sun is an active star. Describe different types of solar activity. Explain how
we can measure it and discuss its effects on life and human technology. What
strategies can be implemented to avoid damaging effects of solar activity?
9. Inside stars
Discuss internal composition of stars similar to our own Sun and compare it with
composition of white dwarfs and neutron stars. Explain how helioseismology and
solar neutrinos help to study interior of the Sun.
10. Space mission to Pluto
The “New Horizons” mission is on its way to explore the outer Solar System.
Describe the objectives of the mission and important scientific instruments on the
space probe. Discuss what we have learnt about Pluto after the closest approach
to this dwarf planet. Explain how this mission helps us to understand the
processes of formation and evolution of the planetary system.
11. Formation of planetary systems
Discuss the early ideas about the formation of our Solar system. Compare our
solar system with other multi-planetary systems discovered in the last 20 years.
Explain what we have learnt about formation of planets from these discoveries.
Describe the concept of planetary migration.
12. Kepler and TESS
Compare the strategy and objectives of the NASA Kepler mission and the new
planned TESS mission. Choose one extra solar planet detected by the Kepler
mission and discuss its importance for our understanding of other solar systems.
13. Habitability of Planets
Explain what makes a planet habitable. In the context of currently known extra
solar planetary systems discuss the likelihood of habitable planets in our Galactic
neighbourhood. Describe some examples of recently discovered extra solar
planets, which are suggested to be habitable and explain why.
14. Role model astronomer/astrobiologist
Science advances by efforts of large collective of collaborating people, but there
are outstanding individuals that we all admire for their role in moving us forward in
understanding our world. Choose your favourite astronomer or astrobiologist that
you learnt about in studying this course, and describe their contribution to their
field of research. Explain why this person inspired you personally.
15. Dark Matter and Dark Energy
Explain both concepts and the differences between them. Describe the
observations that led to the hypothesis that dark matter is an important
component of the Universe. Describe the suggested constituents of the dark
16. The Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence
Explain what is SETI and how it approaches the search for the ET. Explain why
radio telescopes are particularly useful in such a search. If we make contact with
an advanced extraterrestrial civilization discuss how likely it is that we will benefit
from the encounter through, for example, the information they may provide on
advanced technologies, or are we likely to suffer through the hostility of a species
that competes for our resources and perhaps our planet? Based on your
assessment should we be advertising our presence by sending messages to the
stars or would we be better keeping quiet?
Factors you may wish to consider could include:
o Do we expect advanced intelligent species to be friendly or hostile to
other species (based on evolutionary theory, and the requirements of
survival of such a species)?
o Has the human race developed more or less tolerance of different
peoples and cultures as civilization has developed?
o The historical record of encounters between colonial and indigenous
peoples on Earth.
o Our record of treatment of closely related species such as the great apes.
o The vast distances between stars and the difficulty of physical contact
with extraterrestrial neighbours.