第二个，领导者的角色，是最广为人知和清晰可见的。当经理负责一个组织单位时，他负责团队中员工的表现。具体来说，领导角色包括雇佣、激励和约束员工等任务。此外，在这一角色中，实现集团的增长和避免冲突的必要性使管理者肩负起重担。研究表明，成功的管理者进行冲突管理相关的多个行为（Luthans Rosencrantz &亨尼西1985）。
For years, it is accepted that the roles of manager are like orchestra leaders, controlling the overall performance of the organization. When it comes to the work of managers of different levels, it is noted that the jobs of managers are extremely complicated and overburdened with tacks characterized with concision, arrangement and verbal communication (Mintzberg 2000). In detail, the obligations of managers are categorized into ten roles (Mintzberg 1989). Respectively, the ten roles are figurehead, leader, liaison, monitor, disseminator, spokesperson, entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator and negotiator (Mintzberg 1973). Specifically, the first three roles are further categorized as the interpersonal roles (Mintzberg 1973). This essay will mainly focus on the analysis of the interpersonal roles of managers. While most analysis focuses on the theory and research by Mintzberg, other theories and articles are also cited.
2.0 Introduction of the interpersonal roles of managers
The first is named by Mintzberg as the figurehead role. As the word “figurehead” imply, managers are looked as a person with authority and inspiration within the organization. In nature, the role of figurehead is symbolic and ceremonial, performing numerous routine social and legal responsibilities. Examples in reality are when the president of a university hands out diploma, when the sales manager accompanies an important customer to lunch or when supervisor of a factory offers high school students a visit of the plant (Mintzberg 1989).
The second one, the leader role, is most commonly known and clearly seen. As the manager is in charge of one organizational unit, he is responsible for the performance of employees in the team. Specifically, the leader role includes tasks like hiring, motivating and disciplining employees. Moreover, in this role, the necessity to realize grow and avoid conflict in the group put the burden on the shoulders of managers. Study showed that successful managers performed more behaviors related to conflict management (Luthans Rosencrantz & Hennessey 1985).
Comparing with the role of leader, the third one-the liaison role is less recognized. As is described by Mintzberg, the liaison role of managers is dedicated to establish and maintain the manager’s own external information system, which is private, informal, verbal, but effective (Mintzberg 2000). In detail, it is related to communication. This role requires manager not only to report to upper management, peers from other units, and verdors and clients and other activities involving outsiders.
In addition, it is worthy to analyze the interpersonal role from other theory. Here the theory of Henri Fayol is quoted. Five management functions are recognized in Fayol’s theory: planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling. In Lamond’s analysis, it is worthy to notice that all of the three parts of the interpersonal role of managers overlap, to various extent, with the five functions described by Fayol (Lamond 2003). Considering the fact that Fayols focus on what managers should do in idealized states (Lamond 2003), it could be deduced that the interpersonal roles of managers are significant importance if the managers are to realize effective performance.