代写School of Economics ECOS3004
代写School of Economics ECOS3004
School of Economics
History of Economic Thought
Semester 2, 2016
Lecturer: (Prof) Tony Aspromourgos
Phone: 9351 3065
Office: Merewether Bldg, Rm 456
Consultation times: Fridays 1445–1645*
Class day/s: Fridays
Class time/s: 1000–1300**
Venue: Merewether Lecture Theatre 2
* If these hours are unsuitable, appointments at other times can be arranged.
** For half the teaching weeks of the semester (see below, section 7, for the particular weeks) the third hour will be devoted to question-and-answer (Q&A) and discussion. That is to say, it will not be a further lecture and will continue only so long as students attend, prepared with questions or comments, and with a willingness to enter into discussion.
This unit of study guide MUST be read in conjunction with the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences Student Administration Manual (http://sydney.edu.au/arts/current_students/student_admin_manual.shtml) and all applicable University policies. In determining applications and appeals, it will be assumed that every student has taken the time to familiarize themselves with these key policies and procedures.
1. Unit of study information
1.1. School Handbook description (somewhat expanded)
Where do the current beliefs – theories, doctrines, postulates and attitudes – of modern economics come from? If current theories and doctrines had a definite historical beginning, what schools of thought did they supplant? Are there alternative or dissident views which subsisted alongside mainstream economics in the twentieth century – and if so, what are they and where did they originate from? This unit seeks to answer these questions, as well as others.
It provides an overview of the development of economic ideas from the seventeenth century to the twentieth century, combined with a more intensive focus on the theories and thought of certain key figures in that history. Following an examination of the rise of political economy – particularly in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, classical economics is examined in detail: the economic thought of Adam Smith, David Ricardo and Karl Marx, followed by an overview of classical economics as a whole, from 1776 to 1873, and concluding with J.S. Mill and the decline (and reconstruction) of classical economics. Then the rise and development of modern ‘marginalist’ economics from 1871 is considered, including a detailed study of the most important figure among the ‘second generation’ of marginalist economists, Knut Wicksell. A detailed analysis of the most influential economist of the twentieth century, John Maynard Keynes, and of Keynesian economics, is the penultimate topic. The unit concludes with a brief examination of main currents, heterodox and orthodox, in subsequent twentieth-century economics.
An intellectual history such as this unit provides – of a discipline, Economics, that is of long standing and with a large literature – is a vast terrain of ideas, doctrines, literature and persons, all interacting in various ways with wider political, social and economic developments in history. In the most general terms, economics is the study of how societies organize the production and distribution of the means of human sustenance and larger consumption. Here, we are providing a history of the ideas about that. How is one to make this history tractable in a one-semester unit of study, while still giving students a reasonable sense of its overall contours? The approach taken here is to focus upon the fundamental streams or schools of economic theory that have arisen since the beginning of economic science in the 17th and 18th centuries. A summary statement of the topics follows:
1. FORMATION OF ECONOMIC SCIENCE 4 lectures (weeks 1–2)
2. CLASSICAL POLITICAL ECONOMY 8 lectures (weeks 3–6)
3. MARGINALIST ECONOMICS 8 lectures (weeks 7–10)
4. KEYNESIAN ECONOMICS 4 lectures (weeks 11–12)
5. AFTERMATH 2 lectures (week 13)
Behind all this, it is important to keep in mind the fundamental purpose of teaching and learning at the university level: the communication of the skills required for: a) the appropriation of knowledge to one’s self; b) the use of conceptual systems of thought for analysis and diagnosis; and c) the achievement of ‘critical distance’ to enable one to stand ‘outside’ such systems and critically test their potentialities and limitations. In a nutshell, the aim is to enable students to achieve a critical command of conceptual machineries of thought and analysis.
1.2. Pre-requisite units
One of (ECOS2001 or ECON2001) or (ECOS2901 or ECON2901) or (ECOS2002 or ECON2002) or (ECOS2902 or ECON2902) or (ECOP2011 or ECOP2001) or (ECOP2012 or ECOP2002).
1.3. Assumed knowledge and/or skills
Proficiency in intermediate-level undergraduate economic analysis.
1.4 Teaching and assessment overview
As indicated in the preamble above, there are 3 hours of class contact per week – consisting of lectures plus a one-hour Q&A session every second week. Assessment consists of a mid-semester multiple-choice exam (30%), an essay (20%) and a final exam (50%).
2. Learning objectives and outcomes
2.1. Aims of the unit
The fundamental aim is to enable students to acquire a firm and critical grasp of the key ideas and issues in the history of modern economic thought since the 18th century. This substantive aim is to be understood within the context of the fundamental purpose of all teaching and learning at the university level, indicated in the final paragraph of section 1.1 above.
2.2. Learning outcomes
Learning outcomes students should aim for:
1. a) An ability to think critically about underlying theories, concepts, assumptions and arguments in the history of modern economics. b) An appreciation of the changing nature of knowledge. c) Acquisition of a firm and critical grasp of the key ideas and issues in the history of modern economic thought since the 18th century. d) Acquisition of a body of knowledge in the history of economics. e) An ability to exercise critical judgement. f) Capacity for rigorous and independent thinking. These outcomes connect with the following University graduate attributes (‘Research and Inquiry’): Graduates ... will be able to create new knowledge and understanding through the process of research and inquiry. In pursuit of this outcome students should: undertake the required reading for each week’s lectures,
including the notes placed on the unit of study website prior to the relevant lectures; take brief notes of key points in the readings, while undertaking the reading (3–4 A4 pages of notes for each week’s topic is appropriate); attend lectures, listen carefully, and take notes; subsequent to the lectures, review notes taken in the lectures by comparison with the lecture notes from the unit of study website. (The latter documents are not a substitute for attendance at lectures.) Also, in weeks 2–10, undertake independent research (in collaboration with 1–2 other students) for the essay, and write the essay.
2. A capacity to conduct economic research using libraries, the web and other sources of information. This outcome connects with the following University graduate attribute (‘Information Literacy’): Graduates ... will be able to use information effectively in a range of contexts. In pursuit of this outcome students should: same as #1 above. (Outcome 1.d above also contributes to this graduate attribute.)
3. A capacity for confident and coherent communication, orally and in writing, to a professional standard in economic analysis. This outcome connects with the following University graduate attributes (‘Communication’): Graduates ... will recognize and value communication as a tool for negotiating and creating new understanding, interacting with others, and furthering their own learning. In pursuit of these outcomes students should: same as #1 above.
4. a) A capacity for openness to new ways of thinking and appreciation of the importance of intellectual curiosity and reflection as a foundation for continuous learning. b) A capacity to work independently including the ability to plan and achieve goals. These outcomes connect with the following University graduate attributes (‘Personal and Intellectual Autonomy’): Graduates ... will be able to work independently and sustainably, in a way that is informed by openness, curiosity and a desire to meet new challenges. In pursuit of these outcomes students should: same as #1 above.
Students should also ‘critically’ evaluate whether all this talk about ‘learning outcomes’ entirely makes sense!
Learning outcomes and assessment. See section 5 below for detail concerning the 3 assessment instruments. The mid-semester exam tests learning outcomes 1.b, 1.c, 1.d. The assessment criteria for the essay are the extent to which the essay provides: a concise but thorough account of the relevant issues; an analytical approach; a critical understanding of contending views of the issue; evidence of a capacity to reason logically in the hypothetico-deductive manner (if certain postulates, x, y and z hold, then certain conclusions follow). The essay tests all the learning outcomes listed above. The assessment criteria for the final exam are identical to those for the essay. The final exam tests learning outcomes 1.b, 1.c, 3, 4.a. The substantive content of the standard for achieving excellence, both in the essay and the final exam, is captured by the objectives (aims) detailed under section 2.1 above.
Workload. Students should expect to devote to this unit, 9.5 to 11.33 hours per week, by 15 weeks (143–169 hours of committed and energetic work): 3 hours per week of lecture attendance (39 hours); 4–5 hours per week of active reading, e.g., taking brief notes as one reads (52–65 hours); preparation for the mid-semester exam (12–17 hours); preparation of the essay (14–16 hours); preparation for the final exam (26–32 hours).
Student feedback and evaluation. Extensive feedback, both quantitative and qualitative, has been received from previous student cohorts undertaking this unit. (Students enrolled this year are welcome to make an appointment to inspect these surveys from past years.) The unit is reviewed and amended each year in response to student surveys as well as other considerations. A survey of student views on the unit will be undertaken this semester also.
3. Topic Schedule [See the detailed ‘Reading & Lecture Guide’, section 7 below.]
Week 01 29 JUL Formation of Economic Science
Week 02 05 AUG Formation of Economic Science
Week 03 12 AUG Classical Political Economy
Week 04 19 AUG Classical Political Economy
Week 05 26 AUG Classical Political Economy
Week 06 02 SEP Classical Political Economy
Week 07 09 SEP Marginalist Economics
Week 08 16 SEP Marginalist Economics Mid-semester Exam: 14/9/16
Week 09 23 SEP Marginalist Economics
Vacation Week: 26/9–30/9/16
Week 10 07 OCT Marginalist Economics Essay due: 7/10/16
Week 11 14 OCT Keynesian Economics
Week 12 21 OCT Keynesian Economics
Week 13 28 OCT Aftermath
According to Faculty Board Resolutions, students in the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences are expected to attend 80% of their classes. If you attend less than 50% of classes, regardless of the reasons, you may be referred to the Examiner’s Board. The Examiner’s Board will decide whether you should pass or fail the unit of study if your attendance falls below this threshold. For more information on attendance, see http://sydney.edu.au/arts/current_students/policies.shtml.
4. Texts and Other Resources
There is no singular text for this unit. Instead, for each of topics 1–2 and 4–5, there are lecture notes written by the lecturer, which are available on the web. And there are also required primary-source readings, taken from major authors in the history of economics. For topic 3, there are 4 chapters of required secondary reading (instead of lecture notes written by the lecturer), together with some required primary-source readings. In addition, there is a set of ‘skeleton’ notes written by the lecturer, which provides just a sketch of the material, and guide to the 4 chapters of secondary reading, also to be made available on the web. All the primary-source readings for topics 1–4, together with the 4 chapters of required secondary reading for topic 3, are available for purchase as a student reader of photocopies, from the Copy Centre.
NOTE: the 30 multiple-choice questions in the mid-semester exam will be drawn from the lectures, the written lecture notes, and the primary-source readings for topics 1–2. This is very much a reading course, with the aim of the course: for students to acquire a firm and critical grasp of the key ideas and issues in the history of modern economic thought since the 18th century.
It may also be noted, for further reading, that primary and secondary literature in the history of economics is primarily located at call #330.1 forward, in Fisher Library (especially the research collection).
UNIT OF STUDY WEBSITE
As indicated above, lecture notes for topics 1–2, and 4–5, and the ‘skeleton’ notes for topic 4, will be placed on the unit of study website. Some other relevant documents and all other handouts also will be posted on the website.
This unit requires some use of the University’s Learning Management System (LMS), also known as Blackboard Learn. You will need reliable access to a computer and the Internet to use the LMS. The easiest way to access is through MyUni (click on the ‘MyUni’ link on the university home page, http://sydney.edu.au or link directly to the service at https://myuni.sydney.edu.au/. There is a ‘BlackBoard LMS’ icon in the QuickLaunch window on the left hand side of the screen. If you have any difficulties logging in or using the system, visit the Student Help area of the LMS site, http://sydney.edu.au/elearning/student/help/.
The University’s Privacy Management Plan governs how the University will deal with personal information related to the content and use of its web sites. See http://sydney.edu.au/privacy.shtml for further details.
Lecture Recording. Lectures delivered in University-owned lecture theatres are recorded and may be made available to students on the LMS. However, you should not rely on lecture recording to substitute your classroom learning experience.
5.1 Assessment Tasks and Due Dates
Due Time & Date
Mid-Semester Exam (individual assessment)
Essay (group assessment)
Final Exam (individual assessment)
代写School of Economics ECOS3004
* Or equivalent thereof.
5.2 Detailed Assessment Information
MID-SEMESTER EXAM. This mid-semester exam will be held in the Old Teachers’ College Assembly Hall, 5.30pm Wednesday 14 September. This is the only notice you will receive of this time and location. It is a multiple choice exam of 30 questions (to be completed in 40 minutes), drawn specifically from the required reading and lectures for topics 1 and 2. NOTE ALSO: Students who are absent from this exam for legitimate medical or other reasons will be required to later undertake a substitute exam of the same character and coverage; that is to say, there will NOT be merely a re-weighting of their final exam from 50% to 80%.
ESSAY. This is to be a collaborative piece of work, between at least two, and no more than three, students – to be submitted jointly. The due date is Friday of the 10th teaching week of the semester with a deadline of 1500 (3.00pm). It is to be submitted electronically, via ‘Turnitin’. The essay is to be on one of two of the primary-source readings for the unit (listed below). Students must undertake this written paper as a critical review – involving both exposition and critical appraisal.
FINAL EXAM. The final exam paper will have 2 questions – one either/or drawn from topic 3 and one drawn from topic 4. (That is to say, topics 1–2, examined in the mid-semester exam, will not be also examined in the Final Exam.) Students will be required to answer two questions.
Outline and critically appraise the argument of, either:
1. Smith, A. (1776) An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, 2 vols., London: Strahan and Cadell; as repr. in R.H. Campbell, A.S. Skinner and W.B. Todd (eds) (1976) The Glasgow Edition of the Works and Correspondence of Adam Smith, vol. 2, 2 vols., Oxford: Clarendon, pp. 72–81 [Book I, Ch. vii (‘Of the Natural and Market Price of Commodities’)].
2. Smith, A. (1776) … the Wealth of Nations [etc.]; as repr. in R.H. Campbell, A.S. Skinner and W.B. Todd (eds) (1976) The Glasgow Edition of the Works and Correspondence of Adam Smith, vol. 2, 2 vols., Oxford: Clarendon, pp. 276–85 [Book II, Intro. and Ch. i (‘Of the Division of Stock’)].
Both these 2 readings are in the unit-of-study reader.
DUE DATE: The written paper should be submitted by 1500 on Friday 7 October, electronically via Turnitin. Written papers in excess of 1,100 words (including footnotes, but not including References) will not be read, and therefore will receive a mark of zero. The paper must conform to the style guidelines of the Cambridge Journal of Economics ‘Notes to Contributors’ (a copy is included at the end
of the photocopied readings). Students must attach a cover sheet incorporating a signed statement of compliance with the University Policy on Academic Honesty and Plagiarism, available at http://sydney.edu.au/arts/ economics/undergrad/ index.shtml .
FURTHER TO SUBMISSION OF THE ESSAY ASSESSMENT. Compliance Statements: All students are required to submit an authorised statement of compliance with all work submitted to the University for assessment, presentation or publication. A statement of compliance certifies that no part of the work constitutes a breach of the Academic Honesty in Coursework Policy 2016. The format of the compliance statement will be in the form of: a) a University assignment cover sheet; or b) a University electronic form.
Submission of the essay assessment will be required by the due date. It must be submitted online through the LMS. Other assessments, for example visual or oral assessments, must be submitted according to the assessment instructions. Work not submitted on or before the due date is subject to a penalty of 2% per day late. Refer to http://sydney.edu.au/arts/current _students/late_work.shtml for the Policy on Late Work.
6. University and Faculty Policies and Support
Various pieces of information concerning these issues, provided by University authorities for inclusion in unit of study guides, are detailed at the end of this unit of study guide.
7. Reading & Lecture Guide
It will be useful for students to start the reading for each topic prior to the lectures being presented (but not the primary-source reading). In other words, start preparing for each topic the week before the lectures on that topic are to begin.
TOPIC 1. FORMATION OF ECONOMIC SCIENCE (4 lectures: weeks 1–2)
week 1: 1000–1300 Friday 29 July
week 2: 1000–1300 (Q&A session 1200–1300) Friday 5 August
1.1 Economic Science versus Economic Thought
1.2 Petty, Cantillon, Quesnay
1.3 Anne Robert Jacques Turgot
1.4 Mercantilism and Monetary Economics
1.5 What is Classical Economics?
Blackboard file: Aspromourgos Lectures <3004_1_Formation>.
[Petty, W.] (1662) A Treatise of Taxes & Contributions … , London; as repr. in C.H. Hull (ed.) (1899) The Economic Writings of Sir William Petty … , vol. 1, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 29–31, 89–91.
[Cantillon, R.] (1755) Essai sur la Nature du Commerce en Général. Traduit de l’Anglois, London[?]; repr. in H. Higgs (1931) Essai sur la Nature du Commerce en Général by Richard Cantillon: edited with an English translation and other material, London: Frank Cass, pp. 27–31, 43–47, 59–65.
Kuczynski, M. and Meek, R.L. (eds) (1972) Quesnay’s Tableau Économique: Edited, with New Material, Translations and Notes, London: Macmillan and New York: Kelley, pp. i–xii (the ‘3rd edn’).
Turgot, A.R.J. (1769–70) Réflexions sur la Formation et la Distribution des Richesses, in Éphémérides du Citoyen, Paris, November 1769, December 1769, January 1770 [in 3 instalments]; as transl. P.D. Groenewegen (from the 1788 edn) (1977) Reflections on the Formation and Distribution of Wealth, in P.D. Groenewegen (ed.) The Economics of A.R.J. Turgot, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, pp. 85–95.
A. Roncaglia (2005) The Wealth of Ideas: a History of Economic Thought, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: ch. 1: 1–17 (‘The History of Economic Thought and Its Role).
TOPIC 2. CLASSICAL POLITICAL ECONOMY (8 lectures: weeks 3–6)
week 3: 1000–1300 Friday 12 August
week 4: 1000–1300 (Q&A session 1200–1300) Friday 19 August
week 5: 1000–1300 Friday 26 August
week 6: 1000–1300 (Q&A session 1200–1300) Friday 2 September
2.1 Adam Smith
2.2 David Ricardo
2.3 Karl Marx
2.4 The Character of Classical Economics
2.5 Classical Monetary Economics
2.6 The Decline (and Reconstruction) of Classical Economics
Blackboard file: Aspromourgos Lectures <3004_2_Classical_PE>.
Smith, A. (1776) An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, 2 vols., London: Strahan and Cadell; as repr. in R.H. Campbell, A.S. Skinner and W.B. Todd (eds) (1976) The Glasgow Edition of the Works and Correspondence of Adam Smith, vol. 2, 2 vols., Oxford: Clarendon, pp. 72–81 [Book I, Ch. vii (‘Of the Natural and Market Price of Commodities’)], 276–85 [Book II, Intro. and Ch. i (‘Of the Division of Stock’)].
Ricardo, D. (1817) On the Principles of Political Economy, and Taxation, London: John Murray; as repr. in P. Sraffa (ed.) (1951) The Works and Correspondence of David Ricardo, vol. 1., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 88–92 [Ch. IV (‘On Natural and Market Price’)], 110–27 [Ch. VI (‘On Profits’)].
Marx, K. (1867) Capital: a Critique of Political Economy, vol. 1 (The Process of Capitalist Production), Hamburg; as repr. transl. New York: International Publishers, 1967), pp. 199–230 [Part III, Ch. 8 (‘Constant Capital and Variable Capital’) & Ch. 9 (‘The Rate of Surplus-Value’)].
Sraffa, P. (1960) Production of Commodities by Means of Commodities: Prelude to a Critique of Economic Theory, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. v–vii (Preface), 3–10 [Ch. 1 (‘Production for Subsistence’) and part Ch. 2 (‘Production with a Surplus’)].
TOPIC 3. MARGINALIST ECONOMICS (8 lectures: weeks 7–10)
week 7: 1000–1300 Friday 9 September
week 8: 1000–1300 (Q&A session 1200–1300) Friday 16 September
NOTE: the mid-semester exam is in lecture week 8: 5.30pm Wednesday 14/9/16.
week 9: 1000–1300 Friday 23 September
UNIVERSITY VACATION WEEK: 26/9–30/9/16
week 10: 1000–1300 (Q&A session 1200–1300) Friday 7 October
NOTE: The written paper is due in week 10—Friday 7 October.
3.1 The ‘Marginal Revolution’
3.2 The Founders: Jevons, Walras, Menger
3.3 Marshall and Partial Equilibrium
3.4 The ‘Second Generation’ of Marginalism
3.5 The Core Logic of the Theory
3.6 Wicksell and Monetary Economics
Blackboard file: Aspromourgos (skeleton) Lectures: <3004_3_Marginalist_E>.
Samuels, W.J., Biddle, J.E. and J.B. Davis (eds) (2003) A Companion to the History of Economic Thought, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 246–93 [Ch. 16 (P. Groenewegen, ‘English Marginalism: Jevons, Marshall, and Pigou), Ch. 17 (S. Horwitz, ‘The Austrian Marginalists: Menger, Böhm-Bawerk, and Wieser’), Ch. 18 (D.A. Walker, ‘Early General Equilibrium Economics: Walras, Pareto, and Cassel’)], 308–24 [Ch. 20 (R.E. Backhouse, ‘The Stabilization of Price Theory, 1920–1955’)].
Jevons, W.S. (1911 ) The Theory of Political Economy, 4th edn, London: Macmillan, pp. 28–57 [Ch. 2 (‘Theory of Pleasure and Pain’), part Ch. 3 (‘Theory of Utility’)].
Pareto, V. (1906) Manuale d’Economia Politica; as transl. A.S. Schwier (from the 1927 French edn) (1971) Manual of Political Economy, New York: Kelley, pp. 103–19 [part Ch. 3 (‘General Notion of Economic Equilibrium’)].
Wicksell, K. (1898) ‘The Influence of the Rate of Interest on Commodity Prices’, in E. Lindahl (ed.) (1958) Knut Wicksell. Selected Papers on Economic Theory, London: George Allen & Unwin, pp. 67–89.
TOPIC 4. KEYNESIAN ECONOMICS (4 lectures: weeks 11–12)
week 11: 1000–1300 Friday 14 October
week 12: 1000–1300 Friday 21 October
4.1 The General Theory: Effective Demand & Unemployment
4.2 The General Theory: Interest & Money
4.3 Economic Policy & the State
4.4 Keynes, Keynesianism & Marginalism
4.5 Keynes’s Economics and Growth Theory
Blackboard file: Aspromourgos Lectures <3004_4_Keynesian_E>.
Keynes, J.M. (1936) The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, London: Macmillan, pp. 23–34 [Ch. 3 (‘The Principle of Effective Demand’)], 257–71 [Ch. 19 (‘Changes in Money-Wages’)].
Milgate, M. (1987) ‘Keynes’s General Theory’, in J. Eatwell, M. Milgate and P. Newman (eds) The New Palgrave: a Dictionary of Economics; as repr. in J. Eatwell and M. Milgate (2011) The Fall and Rise of Keynesian Economics, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 329–38.
Eatwell, J. (1987) ‘Keynesianism’, in Eatwell et al., op. cit., vol. 3, pp. 46–7.
Tarshis, L. (1987) ‘Keynesian Revolution’, in Eatwell et al., op. cit., vol. 3, pp. 47–50.
TOPIC 5. AFTERMATH (2 lectures: week 13)
week 13: 1000–1300 (Q&A session 1200–1300) Friday 28 October
Sraffa, capital theory and the reconstruction of the classical approach / Marxist economics / the Historical Schools and American Institutional economics / developments in general equilibrium theory / game theory / issues in industrial organization theory / Keynesian themes and developments in macroeconomics / behavioural and experimental economics
Blackboard file: Aspromourgos Lectures <3004_5_Aftermath>.
University and Faculty Policies and Support
ACADEMIC DISHONESTY AND PLAGIARISM
Academic honesty is a core value of the University, so all students are required to act honestly, ethically and with integrity. This means that the University is opposed to and will not tolerate academic dishonesty or plagiarism, and will treat all allegations of academic dishonesty and plagiarism seriously. The consequences of engaging in plagiarism and academic dishonesty, along with the process by which they are determined and applied, are set out in the Academic Honesty in Coursework Policy 2016. You can find these documents University Policy Register at http://sydney.edu.au/policies (enter “Academic Honesty” in the search field).
Definitions. According to the Policy, plagiarism means representing another person’s work (i.e., ideas, findings or words) as one’s own work by presenting, copying or reproducing it without appropriate acknowledgement of the source. Academic dishonesty means seeking to obtain or obtaining academic advantage for oneself or others (including in the assessment or publication of work) by dishonest or unfair means. Academic dishonesty includes, but is not limited to:
Resubmission (or recycling) of work that is the same, or substantially the same as work previously submitted for assessment in the same or in a different unit of study. Every unit of study expects each student to produce new material based upon research conducted in that unit;
Engaging another person to complete or contribute to an assessment in your place; and
Various forms of misconduct in examinations (including copying from another student and taking prohibited materials into an examination venue).
Use of Similarity Detection Software
Students should be aware that all written assignments submitted in this unit of study will be submitted to similarity detecting software known as Turnitin. Turnitin searches for matches between text in your written assessment task and text sourced from the Internet, published works, and assignments that have previously been submitted to Turnitin for analysis. There will always be some degree of text-matching when using Turnitin. Text-matching may occur in use of direct quotations, technical terms and phrases, or the listing of bibliographic material. This does not mean you will automatically be accused of academic dishonesty or plagiarism, although Turnitin reports may be used as evidence in academic dishonesty and plagiarism decision-making processes. Further information about Turnitin is available at http://sydney.edu.au/arts/current_students/plagiarism_and_turnitin.shtml.
Students can apply for Special Consideration for serious illness or misadventure. An application for special consideration does not guarantee the application will be granted. Further information on applying for special consideration is available at http://sydney.edu.au/arts/current_students/special_consideration.shtml.
OTHER POLICIES AND PROCEDURES RELEVANT TO THIS UNIT OF STUDY
The Faculty’s Student Administration Manual is available for reference here http://sydney.edu.au/arts/current _students/student_admin_manual.shtml. Most day-to-day issues you encounter in the course of completing this Unit of Study can be addressed with the information provided in the Manual. It contains detailed instructions on processes, links to forms and guidance on where to get further assistance.
YOUR FEEDBACK IS IMPORTANT. The Unit of Study Survey: The University conducts an online survey for units of study every semester. You will be notified by email when the survey opens. You are encouraged to complete the survey to provide important feedback on the unit just before the end of semester. You can complete the survey at http://www.itl.usyd.edu.au/surveys/complete .
How Student Feedback has been used to develop this Unit of Study. See page 3 above.
STAYING ON TOP OF YOUR STUDY. For full information visit http://sydney.edu.au/arts/current_students/ staying_on_top.shtml
The Learning Centre offers workshops in Academic Reading and Writing, Oral communications Skills, Postgraduate Research Skills, Honours, Masters Coursework Program, Studying at University, and Workshops for English Language and Learning. Further information about The Learning Centre can be found at http://sydney.edu.au/ stuserv/learning_centre/. The Write Site provides online support to help you develop your academic and professional writing skills. All University of Sydney staff and students who have a UniKey can access the WriteSite at http://writesite.elearn. usyd.edu.au/. The FASS Writing Hub has a wide range of programs at both Undergraduate and Postgraduate levels that focus on writing across the curriculum. The FASS Writing Hub offers drop-in sessions to assist students with their writing in a one-to-one setting. No appointment is necessary, and this service is free of charge to all FASS students and/or all students enrolled in
93. WICKSTEED, P.H. (1844–1927)
代写School of Economics ECOS3004