悉尼assignment 代写:航空公司绩效评估

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  • 悉尼assignment 代写:航空公司绩效评估

    衡量航空公司绩效
     
    航空公司绩效评估是确定航空公司发展进程的重要手段,随着竞争的加剧和产业的发展,绩效指标在航空公司的决策、预测和经营管理中发挥着重要的作用。安德鲁·博斯先生的做法是大致了解业绩因素。在我的报告中,我将以一种井然有序的方式对业绩进行分类,以便更好地理解。Forsyth,Hill and Trengove(1986)提出效率是指单个航空公司以最少的投入产生尽可能大的产出的能力。Etherington和Var(1984)解释说,商务和非商务旅行者分析必须分开进行,因为两者都有不同的要求和先决条件。
     
    根据美国交通部交通统计局(Bureau of Transportation Statistics)的数据,确定需要测量的是最重要的;以下是三个主要的绩效因素:
     
    •财务计量
     
    •就业和交通测量
     
    •运营费用计量
     
    财务计量
     
    这些都是衡量航空公司财务方面业绩的指标,一家航空公司不实现财务目标的情况不会持续太长时间,而这些通常被视为主要业绩指标。这些指标进一步分为四个次级措施,如下所示:
     
    a) 每位始发旅客的系统运营利润/(亏损):显示每位旅客的利润或亏损
     
    b) 每名始发旅客的系统运营费用(不包括支线飞机合同):它衡量各航空公司相对于始发旅客的支出。经营一家航空公司所需的一切费用,不包括与区域喷气机活动有关的合同费用,均包括在本计量中。
     
    c) 每架飞机的系统运营费用(不包括支线飞机合同):这项措施将运营航空公司的总费用分摊到承运人的每架单独运营飞机上,不包括非干线支线飞机合同费用。
     
    d) 每名始发旅客的旅客收入(不包括支线飞机合同收入):它衡量航空公司为每名始发旅客收到的平均收入额。
     
    这些因素的一些例子如下:
     
    在第2007年,美国西部是低成本航空公司的领先航空公司,每个乘客利润超过15美元,而ATA每旅客损失最大66.35美元。同样,ATA的每名乘客的最高费用约为459美元,而西南航空的每名乘客的最低费用为104美元。
     
     
     
    就业和交通措施
     
    这些指标对于测量交通密度(每段时间的乘客)和就业率以及两者的混合至关重要。这些是评估航空公司受欢迎程度和市场渗透率的次要指标。航空公司的交通密度越大,乘客就越多,因此占据了更多的市场份额。这一类共有四项措施如下:
     
    a) 每架飞机的全职等效员工(FTE):每架飞机的员工提供了一个衡量航空公司效率的指标,即每生产单位所有员工的平均人数。每架飞机的雇员人数越少,说明效率越高
     
    b) 每个全职员工(FTE)的平均每月可用座位里程(ASM):ASM(一个飞机座位飞行一英里)是航空业的基本生产单位。这是衡量全职员工生产率最简单的指标。
     
    c) 每个全职员工的平均月收入飞机分钟数(FTE):评估生产绩效时最中性的共同点是每个员工的收入飞机分钟数。无论航空公司的商业模式(长途或短途航线)或使用的飞机类型如何,飞行时间都是飞机设计的目的。
     
    d) 每个全职员工的平均每月始发乘客数(FTE):这是一个基本的衡量标准,用于评估与航空公司员工规模相比,运输了多少独特的乘客。
     
    这些指标是航空公司交通和就业的绩效指标。一家稳定的航空公司会对这些指标有很好的价值。例如,2007年,西北航空和联合航空将每架飞机的全职员工减少了22%,同年,低成本航空公司每名全职员工产生166名始发乘客,而网络航空公司每名全职员工产生69名乘客。

    悉尼assignment 代写:航空公司绩效评估

    Measuring Airline Performance
    Airline performance measurement is very vital in identifying the progress of the airline, due to increasing competition and growing industry, the performance indicators play very important role in decision making, forecasting, and management operations. The approach of the Mr. Andrew Boss was to give an idea of the performance factors in general. In my report I will classify the performance in a well arranged manner for better understanding. Forsyth, Hill and Trengove (1986) proposed that efficiency is the ability of individual airline to produce the greatest possible output with the least possible input. Etherington, and Var (1984) explained that business and non-business travelers analysis must be separately done as both have different requirements and prerequisites.
    Identifying what is needed to be measured is most important, according to United States Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics; the following are the three main performance factors:
    Financial Measurement
    Employment and Traffic Measurement
    Operating Expenses Measurement
    Financial Measurement
    These are the measures that give the financial aspects of the airline performance, an airline not fulfilling the financial goals is not going to last long, and these are often considered as primary performance measures. These indicators are further divided into four sub measures as given below:
    a) System Operating Profit/(Loss) per Originating Passenger: Shows profit or loss per passenger
    b) System Operating Expenses (excluding Regional Jet Contract) per Originating Passenger: it measures how much each airline spends in relation to the originating passengers it carries. All expenses necessary to operate an airline excluding contracted expenses relating to regional jet activity are included in this measurement.
    c) System Operating Expenses (excluding Regional Jet Contract) per Aircraft: This measure spreads the total expenses to operate an airline over each of the carrier’s individual operating aircraft excluding non-mainline Regional Jet contract expenses.
    d) Passenger Revenue per Originating Passenger (excluding Regional Jet Contract Revenue): it measures the average amount of revenue received by the airline for each originating passenger.
    Some examples of these factors are given below:
    In year 2007, America West was the leading airline in low cost carrier with over $15 per passenger profit while ATA was in maximum loss of $66.35 per passenger. Similarly ATA had the highest expenses per passenger at around $459 while Southwest was operating at the lowest cost of $104 per passenger.
     
    Employment and Traffic Measures
    These indicators are essential in measuring the traffic density (passenger per certain time) and employment turnovers and the mix of the two. These are the secondary measures to evaluate the popularity and market penetration of the airline. The greater the Traffic density of an airline is the more passengers it is taking hence occupying more market share. There are a total of four measures in this category given below:
    a) Full-Time Equivalent Employees (FTEs) per Aircraft: Employees per aircraft provide one measure of an airline’s efficiency with respect to the average number of all its employees per unit of production. The smaller the number of employees per aircraft indicates greater efficiency
    b) Average monthly Available Seat-Miles (ASMs) per Full-Time Equivalent Employee (FTE): ASMs (one aircraft seat flown one mile) are the basic unit of production in the airline industry. This measure is the simplest gauge of FTE productivity.
    c) Average Monthly Revenue Aircraft Minutes per Full-Time Equivalent Employee (FTE): The most neutral common denominator in evaluating production performance is revenue aircraft minutes per employee. Irrespective of an airline’s business model (long haul or short haul routes) or type of aircraft it utilizes, flight time is what the aircraft were designed to do.
    d) Average Monthly Originating Passengers per Full-Time Equivalent Employee (FTE): It is a basic measure reviewing how many unique passengers are transported compared to the size of the airline’s workforce.
     These indicators are the performance indicators of the airline’s traffic and employment. A stable airline would have good values for these indicators. Like for example, in year 2007 Northwest and United reduced FTEs per aircraft by 22 percent and in the same year the low-cost carriers generated 166 originating passengers per FTE employee compared to 69 passengers per FTE for the network airlines.