代写 BRAZIL’S TOURISM HISTORY
代写 BRAZIL’S TOURISM HISTORY
UNDERSTANDING TRAVEL AND TOURISM (TOUR 1001)
BRAZIL’S TOURISM HISTORY
EXPLAIN HOW BRAZIL BECAME A TOURIST DESTINATION
These notes are meant to help you to explain how Brazil became a tourist destination. Your task is to choose what you think are the relevant points in these notes. Because you have a limited time to complete the assignment and are, therefore, not likely to have a lot of time for researching every part of the assignment in detail, for this part of the assignment you may use the references used in these notes.
HISTORY OF HUMAN MOVEMENT
Since earliest times people have moved from one part of the world to another. The history of these movements of people is referred to as the history of human movement. These movements include the movements of nomadic people from one place to another. They also include travelling to do trade, travelling to engage in warfare, exploring, travelling to establish colonies, travelling to a sacred site on a pilgrimage and migrating to another place in order to establish a permanent home in that place. When people move from one place to another they take their culture with them. The culture they bring with them is likely to influence the culture of the people at the place to which they have travelled. The travellers are also likely to be influenced by the culture of the people at the destination to which they have come. When you write about the influence of people such as the Africans on Brazilian society you are showing how human movement has influenced the culture of Brazilians. Besides the various kinds of human movement that have been referred to so far, adventurous explorers also explored the country. Exploration is another kind of human movement. Famous among these explorers was Colonel Percy Fawcett who went in search of a lost city (which he called ‘Z’) in Brazil but, instead of finding a lost city, he himself was lost (http://home.earthlink.net/-larryorcutt/fawcett.html). Since his disappearance in 1925, several expeditions have gone to the Mato Grosso region of Brazil in search of him. In 2009, a book called The Lost City of Z by David Grann was published in which the writer claimed that the Kalapalo Indians still refer to Fawcett because ‘Fawcett and his companions were some of the first white men the tribe had ever encountered’ (2010 www.duncanjdsmith.com). Tourism, which developed as an industry in England in the 19th century, is an example of human movement.
THE HISTORY OF HUMAN MOVEMENT IN BRAZIL AND ITS IMPACT ON TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
The people whom the Portuguese explorer, Pedro Cabral, met when he came to Brazil at the beginning of the 16th century were the Amerindians but they also came to Brazil from somewhere else (Discovery Channel 2004, p. 67). Scholars once had the idea that the Amerindians migrated to South America from Central Asia but more recently some scholars have put forward the idea that they may have come across the Pacific to South America (Discovery Channel 2004, p. 67). The Portuguese came to Brazil in search of wealth to be made from what the country was able to produce and to convert the indigenous people to Christianity. In search of wealth they explored various parts of the country. At the time when the Portuguese were coming to Brazil, an image of Brazil was created which is still used by the tourism industry (Bandyopadhyay and Nascimento 2010, p.934). This image shows Brazil as a ‘tropical paradise’ with people ‘as wild as the jungle’ (Bandyopadhyay and Nascimento 2010, p. 934). Later, the Portuguese imported African slaves as a labour force. All these kinds of human movement, as well as migration from other parts of Europe, from Asia and from the Middle East resulted in the development of a multicultural society. The Brazilian tourism industry uses multiculturalism as a part of the product it sells to tourists. For example, visiting indigenous tribes in the Amazonian jungle, watching their dances and buying their artefacts as souvenirs is part of the Brazilian tourism product. For American tourists, going to a Candomble festival in Bahia is part of the Brazilian tourism product that shows the influence of African culture on the Brazilian population (Selka 2013, pp. 410-412). (If you want to know what Candomble means, look it up on Google.) Tourists can also visit Liberdade to become aware of the
presence of the descendants of Japanese immigrants in Brazil (Discovery Channel 2004, pp. 200-201). Portuguese culture has a major part in the Brazilian tourism product; for example, tourists are encouraged to visit the World Heritage listed colonial town, Olinda (Insight Guide Brazil 2004, pp. 248-249).
OTHER ASPECTS OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN BRAZIL
In the following section of the notes I am giving examples of reasons why Brazil has become a tourist destination.
Boniface and Cooper (2001, p. 335) claim that tourism began in Rio de Janeiro ‘when the Portuguese royal family moved to Brazil in the nineteenth century and chose Rio as the place to live’ but they do not explain why they regard this as the beginning of tourism. They do, however, explain what government authorities and the tourism industry have done to make Rio an attractive destination for international tourists. The rest of this paragraph, except for the reference to Taylor, is a summary of the points they make (Boniface and Cooper 2001, pp. 335-337.) In the 1930s, the authorities in Rio realised the importance of the Rio Carnival as an attraction and so they created a Department of Tourism to promote the carnival as a tourist attraction (Taylor 1982, p. 303 and to control the content of the carnival in order to make it more attractive to international tourists. Brazilian governments and tourism authorities have placed a great deal of importance on Rio as the destination to attract tourists. In the 1940s and 1950s the emphasis was on Rio’s beaches. As a result of the emphasis placed on Rio, attention was given to the provision of facilities for tourists, such as the building of an international airport and establishing major hotels in the 1970s. Although large numbers of tourists were attracted, from the mid-1980s the number of international arrivals in Rio dropped, thus having a serious impact on hotel occupancy. The Brazilian government tried to correct these problems in the late 1990s by working with the private sector to improve the tourism economy and to increase both domestic tourism and international tourism receipts. One way to do this was to encourage new kinds of attractions such as ecotourism in Tijuca National Park and to place greater emphasis on cultural and historical tourist attractions.
The authorities have recognised the importance of education and training for employees of the tourism industry (Leal, Netto, Trigo 2012, p. 175). Greater attention has been given to the Amazonian jungle as a source of tourist attractions and as a means of economic assistance to the indigenous people. The Brazilian authorities have recognised the importance of mega-events such as the World Cup in 2014 and the Olympic Games in 2016 as ways of attracting international tourists. Attempts have also been made to get rid of Brazil’s sexy image ‘by implementing a new tourism marketing plan in which tourism campaigns, brochures and websites have focused on the natural beauty of Brazil, and very little on carnival, and have avoided pictures of naked women’ but the image created so long ago is so strong that it is difficult to get rid of it (Bandyopadhyay, Nascimento 2010, p. 943).
Bandyopadhyay, R, Nascimento, K 2010, ‘ “Where fantasy becomes reality” ‘: how tourism forces made Brazil a sexual playground’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 933-949.
Boniface, B, Cooper, C 2001, Worldwide destinations: the geography of travel and tourism, 3rd edn., Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford.
Discovery Channel 2004, Insight Guides Brazil, APA Publications, Singapore.
http://home.earthlink.net/-larryorcutt/fawcett.html, accessed 25/05/2015.
Leal, SR, Netto, AP, Trigo, LGG 2012, ‘Tourism education and research in Brazil’ in eds. G Lohmann & D. Dredge, Tourism in Brazil: environment, management and segments, Routledge, London and New York: Routledge.
Selka, S 2013, ‘Cityscapes and contact zones: Christiainity, Candomble, and African heritage in Brazil’, Religion, vol. 43, no. 3, pp 403-420.
Taylor, JM 1982, ‘The politics of aesthetic debate: the case of Brazilian carnival’, Ethnology, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 301-311.
代写 BRAZIL’S TOURISM HISTORY