Gibson Burrell和Gareth Morgan在《社会学范式》和《组织分析》（1979）中引入了多种理论，从多方面解释了现实。多视角为研究者提供了一个更广阔的框架，鼓励他们以不同的方式研究现象。多视角方法有助于分类相似的思想和思维方式，有助于培养系统的组织意识。在讨论他们在充满科技的世界中的作用之前，需要解释不同的方法及其基本假设。
According to a modern definition, technology is described as a systematic application of knowledge shown in physical objects as well as in forms of organization for achievement of particular goals (Merriam-Webster dictionary, 2006). Another definition of technology states that it is system based application of knowledge, exhibited in physical objects and organisational forms for achieving particular goals that might have practical, symbolic or revenue generation reasons behind (national science foundation, 2001cite). Hatch and Cunliff (2006) has defined it as “technology is not a pure application of science; it is co-determined by social, cultural, economic and technical factors in the environment that contextualizes it”. Technology has great effect on our lives, in fact it has played a vital role in modifyingand transformation of our lives and its impact is increasing day by day in every aspect of life (Philbin 2003; Challoner 2009). Educational institutions are not an exception; the universities are using new technologies for administrative facilitation and improvement in learning. The administrative areas that can be benefited by use of technology particularly information technology include general administration, accounts, record maintenance, personnel record management and library management ( Ben-Zion Barta et. al. 1995) However there are many perspectives on use of modern technology in educational organizations. Following essay will try to explore views of two major perspectives i.e., modernism and post modernism.
There are number of theories, explaining reality in many ways and thus a new term of multiple perspective was introduce by Gibson Burrell and Gareth Morgan in their book sociological paradigm and organizational analysis (1979). Multiple perspectives provide a broader framework to researchers encouraging them to study phenomena in different ways. Multiple perspective approach helps in categorizing similar ideas and ways of thinking for developing systematic sense of organization. Explanation of different approaches and their underlying assumptions are necessary to understand before discussing their role in technology laden world.
From a modernist perspective, there are many assumptions about use and continuous inventions of technology, according to modernist perspective, including, improvement and invention of technologies always provide base for new technologies, there is always room for improvement, it is a unique human endeavour and positive changes in technology brings positive changes in organizations. The last assumption is so strong that even the advancement level of an organization is measured by level of advanced technology used in it.
On the other hand postmodernist approach claims that technology is a subversive force which can have adverse effects on destruction of previous values, roles and relationships in an organization and establishing new ones(plato.stanford, 2005). To support their argument, Luddities emerged as a movement in Britain in eighteen century where, the workers resisted introduction of more productive machines, stating that it will effect on their jobs and skills. The result of suppression of workers and loss of work is a feature of the critical theory approach. Even in China, new concept of toxic progress is getting popularity against the concept that technology can solve all problems, however its excessive use in an organization cause many problems too. There are two major reasons of it; one that the goals of organization are different for different people i.e., for workers and managers, and secondly that technology is value laden. It can be beneficial for those who have invented and started using it. Values of inventors and users influence techniques of production as well. However a very important aspect is ignored mostly i.e., ignoring the fact that human is unable to change or modify behaviours quickly in contrast to machines.