HUMAN SCIENCES:FROM CELLS TO SOCIETIES SCIE1000 代写
HUMAN SCIENCES:FROM CELLS TO SOCIETIES SCIE1000 代写
University of Melbourne
Faculty of Science
HUMAN SCIENCES: FROM CELLS TO SOCIETIES
(SCIE1000 0) 4)
Room 1.17, 221 Bouverie St
Phone: 8344 6704
Co-ordinator, Lecturer: Dr Celia McMichael (Geography)
Lecturer: Assoc. Prof. Vicki Lawson (Biomedicine/Pathology)
Lecturer: Prof. Nick Haslam (Psychology)
Lecturer: Prof. Mark Elgar (Biology: Evolution and Behaviour Group)
Lecturer: Dr. Nick Golding (Evolutionary Ecology)
This is a 12-week subject. Each week, students are expected to attend:
• One 2 hour lecture per week (12 in total)
• One 1-2 hour lecture/seminar per week (12 in total).
Lecture/seminar times and venues
• Thursdays: 11am – 1pm
Venue: Physics South-L108 (Laby Theatre)
• Fridays: 12:00pm – 2:00pm
Venue: Elisabeth Murdoch-G06 (Theatre A)
Weekly readings are listed in this subject outline and are available on the LMS. Each week there
are one to two required readings (listed in bold).
Why do we have pandemics?
Pandemics refer to diseases that extend across large geographic areas, are spread via transmission
between places (by people, enteric organisms, and vectors), have high rates of transmission and
minimal population immunity, cause serious symptomatic illness, are (sometimes) new/novel, and
are infectious. Pandemics include HIV/AIDS, cholera, influenza, plague, and West Nile disease. The
term pandemic has also been used to describe non-infectious diseases, such as obesity, that
represent a high global burden of disease and are geographically extensive. Pandemic threats are a
major global concern.
Determinants of pandemics operate at the micro level (e.g. cells) through to the macro level (e.g.
societies, environments). Causes of pandemics include, for example: emergence of pathogens and
human-to-human transmission; use or misuse of antimicrobials; changes in pathogen-host-
environment interactions; and ecological, behavioural, or socioeconomic changes that support the
emergence/spread of disease. Understanding, prevention and control of pandemics requires multi-
disciplinary work and collaboration.
In this subject we consider the insight of different disciplines for understanding and responding to
pandemics, including evolutionary ecology, biomedicine, psychology and health geography. Cases
and examples of pandemics will be drawn from around the world and across time.
In the final week of semester, the views of ‘the human’ that are held by the four disciplines will be
compared and contrasted, in light of what has been revealed in studying pandemics. This concluding
discussion will demonstrate the aspects of the human to which each discipline gives priority, and at
At the completion of this subject, students will have:
• Understanding of the varied manner in which scientific disciplines understand ‘the human’ -
at the scales of the cell, body and society - and how this can form a multi-faceted ‘human
• Knowledge of the ways in which four disciplines – Evolutionary Ecology, Biomedicine,
Psychology and Geography - contribute to a ‘human sciences’ perspective to pandemics.
• Capacity to define, describe, and explain the concept of pandemics.
• Familiarity with key historical and modern pandemics.
At the completion of the subject students should have developed the following skills:
1. critical analysis
2. cross-disciplinary thinking
3. capacity to apply theory and concepts to practical examples
SUBJECT AT A GLANCE
Wk. Date “Discipline” Topic
1 27 July Multi. Why do pandemics occur?
28 July Biomed Infectious disease case study investigation/activity
2 3 Aug Geog. Introduction to key global pandemics
4 Aug Biomed. Determinants of pandemics (“pandemics in a test tube”)
3 10 Aug Evol. ecol Transmission dynamics
11 Aug Evol. ecol Transmission dynamics
4 17 Aug Evol. ecol Resistance and virulence
18 Aug Evol. ecol Resistance and virulence
5 24 Aug Biomed. Biomedicine: infectious disease and pandemics
25 Aug Biomed. Test weeks 3-4; scenario-based learning/biomed focus
6 31 Aug Biomed. Examples/attributes of pandemics
1 Sept Biomed. Scenario-based learning/biomed
7 7 Sept Psych. Pandemics and insights from psychology
8 Sept Psych. Test weeks 5-6; scenario-based learning/psych focus
8 14 Sept Psych. Pandemics: evidence & answers from psychology
15 Sept Psych. Pandemics: evidence & answers from psychology
9 21 Sept Geog. Pandemics in place and space; insights from geography
22 Sept Geog. Test weeks 7-8; scenario-based learning/geog focus
10 5 Oct Geog. Understanding pandemics through health geography
6 Oct Geog. Pandemics and place: micro and macro perspectives
11 12 Oct Multi Understanding pandemics through a multidisciplinary lens
13 Oct Geog. Test weeks 9-10; discuss assignment
12 19 Oct Multi Pandemics past and future: human science perspective
20 Oct Geog. Critical reflection: inter-disciplinary views of infectious disease
- 30 Oct - Major Essay/Assignment due
1) Four in-class multiple choice tests: 40% (4 x 10%).
DUE DATE: Tests will be held IN-CLASS on 25 August, 8 September, 22 September, and 13 October.
Each test will consist of 20-30 multiple choice questions and will cover the previous two weeks’
PLEASE BRING: your student number, a black pencil, an eraser.
2) Major Essay/Assignment: 60%
DUE DATE: 30 October 2017, 11:59pm
WORD LENGTH: 2,000 words maximum plus references
REFERENCING: 8+ references are expected.
SUBMISSION: Submit your essay using the Turn-it-in Link on LMS
MARKING: The marking rubric (provided on LMS) outlines the primary criteria for marking this
assignment. You are expected to utilise perspectives from core disciplines (biomedicine,
evolutionary ecology, psychology, geography).
TOPIC: Consider the following scenario (note: Agouti virus is not an actual virus)
The recent Agouti virus outbreak in East Asia is a population health emergency of international
concern. It has already resulted in over 12,000 cases in East Asia. In recent weeks, three cases of
Agouti virus have been identified in South America, and two in Australia. Early symptoms of the virus
include fatigue, fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and muscular aches. More advanced symptoms
appear between 4 to 10 days. The virus can cause haemorrhagic fever. There is no specific
treatment for the virus, but early diagnosis and hospitalisation can aid recovery. The disease has an
estimated case fatality rate of 20%. Rates of Agouti virus mutation are high: their genomes can
accrue genetic differences while spreading geographically; the virus is able to adapt rapidly to novel
environments with the potential to alter sensitivity to immune responses.
Humans can contact the infection if they are exposed to infected saliva, faeces and urine from
rodents or contaminated dust where infected rodents live; rodents are the primary reservoirs
worldwide. Wild rodent hosts are most frequently found in rural or semi-rural areas. The outbreak
in East Asia was preceded by an unusually wet conditions caused by a strong La Niña event. The rains
boosted the food supply available to rodents (insects, vegetation) leading to 10-fold increase in their
Agouti virus has devastated individuals, families and communities, increased burden on essential
health services, and isolated affected populations. Factors that affect exposure to the virus include
farm work, herding, sleeping on the ground and poor housing conditions that increase contact
between humans and rodents.
QUESTION: Examine how each of the four disciplines – evolutionary ecology, biomedicine,
psychology, geography – might understand the causes of the “Agouti virus” and contribute to
aspects of prevention, treatment and control. Discuss the value of a multi-disciplinary approach to
this pandemic threat.
Week 1 (Multidisciplinary)
In this subject – cells to societies – we will be drawing on insights from evolutionary ecology,
biomedicine, psychology and geography in order to understand the question ‘why do we have
pandemics?’ In this first week, we explore the concept of pandemics, discuss the need for
multidisciplinary perspectives and collaboration in understanding and responding to pandemics, and
introduce the idea of human sciences.
Morens, D., Folkers, G.K., Fauci, A. 2009. What is a pandemic? The Journal of Infectious Diseases,
200: 1018-21. Available at http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/200/7/1018.full
Week 2 (Multidisciplinary)
We introduce key pandemics – both historic and current – such as the Black Death, Spanish Flu, and
HIV/AIDS and zoonotic infections (i.e. a disease that can be spread between animals and humans).
We note the significance of clinical, scientific, psychological, socio-cultural and environmental factors
in terms of understanding and responding to (global) infectious diseases.
Armelagos, G.J., Brown, P., Turner, B (2005) Evolutionary, historical and political economic
perspectives on health and disease. Social Science and Medicine, 61: 755-765.
Week 3 (Evolutionary Ecology; transmission dynamics)
This week we will look at pandemics from the perspective of ecological dynamics. The rate of spread of
an infectious disease depends on some key parameters - like how many people are infected by each case
and how quickly cases recover. If we understand the transmission cycle and know these parameters, we
can use population dynamics to anticipate whether an outbreak is likely to lead to a pandemic, and what
we need to do to stop it.
Heesterbeek, H., Anderson, R. M., Andreasen, V., Bansal, S. et al. (2015). Modeling infectious disease
dynamics in the complex landscape of global health. Science, 347(6227), 4339–4339.
Week 4 (Evolutionary Ecology; resistance and virulence)
Eminent biologist and theist Theodosius Dobzhansky’s observation that “nothing in biology makes
sense except in the light of evolution” is especially relevant to understanding the relationships
between humans and pathogens. This week provides an introduction to Darwin’s simple, but
frequently misunderstood, explanation of the evolution of adaptation by natural selection, and an
account of its remarkable success in explaining the diversity of life. The theory will then be applied
to two adaptations that are of critical interest to studies of disease – antimicrobial resistance and
pathogen virulence – and how ideas derived from evolutionary theory might help mitigate these
Dobzhansky, T. 1973. Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution. American
Biology Teacher 35 (3): 125–129.
Stearns, S. 2012. Evolutionary medicine: its scope, interest and potential. Proceedings of the Royal
Society B 279: 4305–4321.
Week 5 (Biomedicine)
This week provides an introduction to biomedical understanding of infectious disease. Disease
occurs when structure (anatomy) and function (physiology and biochemistry) are impaired. The
immune system (immunology) defends our bodies from infection (microbiology) and disease
(pathology). Diseases can be prevented, treated or cured (pharmacology).
Kumar et al. (eds) 2013. General Pathology of Infectious Disease. In Robbins Basic Pathology, 9 th
edition. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders.
Week 6 (Biomedicine)
This week considers biomedical perspectives as to the attributes of pandemics. We consider the
attributes of the organism and host that contribute to pandemics using examples from historical and
Maher, B. & Butler, D. 2009. Swine flu: one killer virus, three key questions. Nature, 462: 154-157.
Week 7 (Psychology)
This week we explore the role of cognition in responses to pandemics. Using HIV/AIDS as a primary
example, we explore how people perceive risk and the common biases associated with risk
perception. We also discuss decision biases such as unrealistic optimism that may lead people to
behave irrationally in the face of disease risks, and how they may impede efforts to control
infections. The role of cognitive change in efforts to prevent infection and promote positive health
behaviour change will also be discussed.
Fisher, W. A., Fisher, J. D., & Shuper, P. A. (2014). Social psychology and the fight against AIDS: An
information-motivation-behavioral skills model for the prediction and promotion of health
behavior change. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 105-193. [read only pp. 105-157)
Week 8 (Psychology)
This week our attention shifts to emotional and social dimensions of reactions to pandemics. We
explore the role of attitudes and emotions such as fear and disgust in responses to threats of
infection and examine the stigma attached to infected persons. The concept of the “behavioural
immune system” will be introduced. Using examples from HIV/AIDS, SARS and Ebola we explore how
stigma and disgust may have evolved as a response to pathogens. Special emphasis will be placed in
the fascinating psychology of disgust, which is arguably an emotion that arose as a disease-
avoidance mechanism. Finally, social processes involved in infectious disease transmission will be
examined via research on social networks.
Oaten, M., Stevenson, R. J., & Case, T. I. (2009). Disgust as a disease-avoidance mechanism.
Psychological Bulletin, 135, 303-321.
Schaller, M., & Park, J. H. (2011). The behavioral immune system (and why it matters). Current
Directions in Psychological Sciences, 20, 99-103.
Week 9 (Geography; global themes)
Infectious diseases pose challenges for understanding the web of causation, including their
geographic, social, economic, and environmental determinants. In this week, we consider health
geography and large-scale drivers of infectious disease and pandemics: population mobility, human-
environment interactions, health-care access, and poverty/inequality.
Mayer, Jonathon (2000) Geography, ecology and emerging infectious diseases. Social Science and
Medicine, 50(7-8): 937-952
Famer, P (1996) Social Inequalities and Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases
Week 10 (Geography; local perspectives)
In this week we consider examples of geographic research on infectious diseases. We focus on the
‘local’, and examine the ways in which socio-cultural experiences, localised experiences of health
care access, stigma, and changes to everyday life shape understanding and responses to infectious
disease and epidemics/pandemics.
Colin McFarlane, Renu Desai & Steve Graham (2014) Informal Urban Sanitation: Everyday Life,
Poverty, and Comparison, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 104(5): 989-1011.
Week 11 (Multidisciplinary)
In this week, we consider infectious disease epidemics/pandemic threats – with a focus on zoonotic
diseases. We analyse them from a human sciences perspective, asking questions from different
Cascio, A., Bosilkovski, M., Rodriguez-Morales, A.J., Pappas, G. 2011. The socio-ecology of zoonotic
infections. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 17: 336–342
David Nabarro, Chadia Wannous (2016) The Links Between Public and Ecosystem Health in Light of
the Recent Ebola Outbreaks and Pandemic Emergence. EcoHealth. Available at:
Week 12 (Multidisciplinary)
In this final week we consider infectious disease from a multi-disciplinary/human sciences
perspective. Infectious diseases have caused deadly pandemics such as the Black Death pandemic in
the fourteenth century (bubonic/pneumonic plague), and HIV/AIDS. They are often biological
expressions of social inequalities. While some are becoming better controlled, it is highly unlikely we
can eliminate most emerging infectious diseases. Global and local responses will need multi-
disciplinary insight in order to curtail the epidemic and pandemic potential of infectious disease.
Morens DM, Fauci AS (2013) Emerging Infectious Diseases: Threats to Human Health and Global
Stability. PLoS Pathog 9(7): e1003467. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003467
Jones, K.E., Patel, N., Levy, M.A. Storeygard, A., Balk, D., Gittleman, J.L. & Daszak, P. (2008) Global
trends in emerging infectious diseases. Nature, 451: 990-993.
Other relevant references:
HUMAN SCIENCES:FROM CELLS TO SOCIETIES SCIE1000 代写
Dibble, C., Wardell, S., Carle, K. (2007) ‘Simulating pandemic influenza risks of US cities’, Simulation Conference
(Winter), pp 1548 – 1550
Bossak, Brian and Welford, Mark (2010) ‘Spatio-temporal attributes of pandemic and epidemic diseases’,
Geography Compass, 4(8), 1084-1096
Craddock, S. (2000) ‘Disease, social identity and risk: rethinking the geography of AIDS’, Transactions of the
Institute of British Geographers 25(2), 153-168
Gould, W., and Woods, R. (2003) ‘Population geography and HIV/AIDS: the challenge of a “wholly exceptional”
disease’, Scottish Geographical Journal, 119(3), 265-281
Hunter, Mark (2007) ‘The changing political economy of sex in South Africa: the significance of unemployment
and inequalities to the scale of the AIDS pandemic’, Social Science and Medicine, 64(3), 689-700
Johnson, Niall (2006) Britain and the 1918/19 Influenza Pandemic: A Dark Epilogue. London, Routledge
Gostin, L.O., Lucey, D., Phelan, A. (2014) The Ebola Epidemic: A Global Health Emergency. JAMA 312(11): 1095-
Hay, S., Battle, K.E., Pigott, D.M. et al. (2013) Global mapping of infectious disease. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B
Biol Sci. 368(1614): 20120250.
Hunter, Mark (2011) ‘Beyond the male migrant: South Africa’s long history of health geography and the
contemporary AIDS pandemic’, Health and Place 16(1), 25-33
Linard, C and Tatem, A. (2012) Large-scale spatial population databases in infectious disease research.
International Journal of Health Geographics. 11:7 DOI: 10.1186/1476-072X-11-7
Morse, Stephen (2007) ‘Pandemic influenza: studying the lessons of history’, PNAS (Proceedings of National
Academy of Science), 104(18), 7313-14
Pain, Rachel, Smith, Susan (eds) (2008) Fear: Critical Geographies and Everyday Life. Ashgate, Aldershot UK. (ch
6 by Ingram is about pandemics)
Pybus OG, Tatem AJ, Lemey P (2015) Virus evolution and transmission in an ever more connected world Proc
Biol Sci. Dec 22; 282(1821):20142878. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2014.2878.
Phillips, H., Killingray, D (2003) eds The Spanish Flu Pandemic of 1918-19: New Perspectives. London,
Reid, Ann et al. (2004) ‘Evidence of an absence: the genetic origins of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus’,
Nature Review Microbiology, 2, 909-914
Richard, SA et al. (2009) ‘A comparative study of the 1918-1920 influenza pandemic in Japan, USA and UK:
mortality, impact and implications for pandemic planning’, Epidemiology and Infection, 137(8), 1062-72
Robson, E. et al. (2006) ‘Young caregivers in the context of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa’,
Population, Space and Place 12(2), 93-111
Veterinarians without borders (2010) One Health for One World. Available at:
Wallace RG, Kock R, Bergmann L, Gilbert M, Hogerwerf L, Pittiglio C, Mattioli R, Wallace R. (2016) Did
Neoliberalizing West African Forests Produce a New Niche for Ebola? Int J Health Serv. 46(1):149-65.
Other relevant resources
Centralized information system for infectious diseases (CISID). http://data.euro.who.int/cisid/
Global Health Atlas. http://apps.who.int/globalatlas/
World Bank Health Nutrition Population Statistics. http://databank.worldbank.org/data/databases/infectious-
EXTENSIONS FOR MAJOR ESSAY
The topic for assignments and their submission dates are notified at the start of teaching and
extensions will not normally be permitted. However, if the need arises - e.g. medical reasons or any
other circumstances outside the control of the student – an application (with documentation) for an
extension of up to one week should be made directly to Dr Celia McMichael
(firstname.lastname@example.org) before the due date for that assignment. For Special
Consideration, if a longer extension is required, please refer to the Student Portal (or see
PENALTIES FOR LATE SUBMISSION OF MAJOR ESSAY
Standard penalties will apply for late submission for essays/assignments, unless an extension has
been granted: the mark awarded for the student’s work will be reduced by 10% for each day the
work is late. Essays submitted later than 5 days after the due date will not be marked, therefore
receiving no marks.
RULES FOR SUBMISSION OF MAJOR ESSAY
The Major Essay must be submitted via the Turn-It-In link on LMS.
SPECIAL CONSIDERATION FOR IN-CLASS TESTS
Students are required to complete all in-class tests. If you are unable to attend a test, you must send
an email directly to Dr Celia McMichael (email@example.com) before the test. Students
who are not granted special consideration will be awarded 0% for that test. For students who are
granted special consideration: upon missing one test, will be marked out of 90 (i.e. can still
hypothetically get 100% by getting 90/90); upon missing two or more tests, will be assigned an
alternative assessment piece worth 10% at the end of semester (week 12) that may comprise a short
essay and/or multiple choice test (and they will be marked out of 90).
Students needing assistance with writing should contact the academic skills unit.
It is expected that you attend lectures and seminars as scheduled throughout semester unless there
are exceptional circumstances. If you miss a lecture/seminar please make a time to listen to the
lecture recordings later in the week.
CHEATING AND PLAGIARISM
It is University policy that cheating by students in any form is not permitted, and that work
submitted for assessment purposes must be the independent work of the student concerned (or,
where joint work is specifically permitted, the joint work of the students concerned). This is in
keeping with the rules made by University Council under Regulation 12.2.10.R1.
See: http://www.services.unimelb.edu.au/plagiarism/plagiarism.html for details.
LEAVE OF ABSENCE AND WITHDRAWAL FROM SUBJECTS
To withdraw from a subject or take a leave of absence from a course, a student must complete the
appropriate form and return it to the Faculty of Science Student Centre before the census dates
detailed in the next section. Failure to withdraw officially from a subject will result in the student
being given a ‘Fail’ grade as well as financial liability for the fees of the subject.
HUMAN SCIENCES:FROM CELLS TO SOCIETIES SCIE1000 代写