代写 peer-to-peer learning promote student independence
代写 peer-to-peer learning promote student independence
Chris Keenan认为，对等学习越来越受到学生的重视，减少了学习者的依赖性，有助于学生获得自主学习技术。根据bhogal研究，对等学习并不意味着摆脱老师的控制。教师应在独立建设起到重要作用（bhogal，大风，Hamilton Ii，琼斯，& O'Connell，2016）。他们可以通过提供建议来影响同侪学习的成功。从学生动态的角度看，同伴学习可以促进学生关系的发展，促进多元文化的理解。当学生能自由表达自己的思想时，他们可以介绍自己的背景和信仰来增进理解。教师可以起到引导的作用。
为了识别学生在点对点学习中的独立性，有必要讨论点对点学习带来的问题。在同行学习中考虑同伴是很重要的。一般来说，同龄人是学生年龄相仿的人，他们没有当老师或教授的经验。他们可能有一定的专业知识经验，但不多。他们以学习者的身份分享知识。最重要的是，他们在自己的位置上没有任何权力。因此，点对点学习可能带来准确性和独立性的问题。据格林伍德与Delquadri（1995），他们认为要培养学生在教学中的作用，督促其持续的准确性和传导的重要性。但事实上，在日常的课堂上，却缺乏帮助。时间和训练的局限性并不能提高学习与合作的效率。Wiliam Van Zyl认为，有效的对等学习取决于密切监控它的是我最好的结果重要
代写 peer-to-peer learning promote student independence
Peer-to-peer learning is still an abstract ideas and in this report, it means the two-way, practical learning activities. It is benefit to each other in sharing the knowledge, ideas and experiences among the participants. It can reduce the dependence of the academics and it can help the students to gain the self-learning technology. With the development of globalization, more and more international students choose to study in Australia. In this report, it will identify the benefits of peer learnings and the applications to identify the way to enhance the independence.
Table of contents
Executive summary 1
1.0 Introduction 1
2.0 Body 2
2.1Opportunities brought by peer-to-peer learning 2
2.2 The important conditions of peer to peer learning 2
2.3 Problems brought by peer-to-peer learning 2
2.4The application of the peer to peer learning 3
Peer-to- peer study is not a single and undifferentiated way of education and it has covered the broad scale of activity. They have offered the chance of cooperative group learning and it can bring the strengths for the students. But there are also some other limitations of the peer-to-peer learning, for example, too much assistance can lead to the students becoming too dependent on others. it can lead to the collusion or academic misconduct. Under this background, this report is exploring the way peer-to-peer learning promote student independence and it can help the readers understand the benefits and limitations of peer-to-peer learning.
2.1Opportunities brought by peer-to-peer learning
Peer-to-peer learning is still an abstract ideas and in this report, it means the two-way, practical learning activities. It is benefit to each other in sharing the knowledge, ideas and experiences among the participants. It can reduce the dependence of the academics and it can help the students to gain the self-learning technology. According to Broud, it can be regarded as a study way of moving beyond the independent to the interdependent or mutual learning. When the learners are involved in the peer-to-peer learning, they can learn the practical feedback of the critical ideas. In class group, the experienced students can help those with less experience. It is benefit to form the cooperative learning in the organizations. Compared with the traditional teaching ways, it is in the double-side communication and the learners can take part in the communication more often in order to classify the issues. If the students are interested in certain subjective and full of enthusiasm, they can teach each other instead of emphasizing the personal knowledge. In the peer-to-peer learning, it can enhance the interaction of the students with others and it can be important in the practical application.
2.2 The important conditions of peer to peer learning
According to Chris Keenan, peer to peer learning has pay more attention of the students to reduce the dependence of the academics and it can help the students to gain the self-learning technology. According to the research of Bhogal, the peer-to-peer learning does not mean to get rid of the control of the teachers. The teachers should play an important role in the independence building（Bhogal, Gale, Hamilton Ii, Jones, & O'Connell, 2016). They can affect the success of peer to peer learning via offering the suggestions. From the perspective of students dynamics, the peer learning can push the student relationship to develop the understanding on the multiple cultures. When the students can express their ideas freely, they can introduce their background and belief to increase the understanding. And the the teachers can play the role of guiding.
2.3 Problemsbrought by peer-to-peer learning
In order to identify the way of students’ independence in the peer-to-peer learning, it is necessary to discuss the issues brought by the peer-to-peer learning. It is important to consider the peers in the peer learning. In general, the peers are those in the similar age of the students and they do not have the experience of being a teacher or professor. They may have the certain experience of professional knowledge but not much. They are sharing the knowledge as an identity of learner. The most important is that they do not own any authority in their position. Thus, the peer-to-peer learning may bring the issues of accuracy and the independence. According to the Greenwood &Delquadri (1995), they argue the importance to train the teaching role of the students and supervise its ongoing accuracy and conduction. But in fact, in the daily classroom, it is lack of assistance. The limitation of time and training can not lead to the more efficient on learning and cooperation. According to Wiliam Van Zyl, the effective peer-to-peer learning is depending on the close monitory as it is important to make the best outcome of the learning. When the students observe the teachers can consciously steer on the communication, they will be much more confident but it is hard for the tutors to keep monitoring on everyone. Effective peer tutoring programs depends on the maintains with lots of time and energy. According to K.J. Topping, he stressed the importance of training and supervision of the partners (McLuckie, & Topping, 2004).
2.4The application of the peer to peer learning
There are various activities covered by the peer to peer learning and it is not a single educational strategy. For example, according to Griffiths, Housten and Lazenbatt, in University of Ulster have identified the ten different ways of peer to peer learning（Houston, &Lazenbatt，1999). It has included the traditional proctor model with assistance from the senior students to the junior students and the innovative learning models, which the students can form the partnership with others in the same course or with the individual concerns. There are some other important models including the discussion seminars, private study groups, parrainage or counseling, peer-assessment schemes, collaborative project and laboratory work or the mentoring and communication activities. In general, from the classroom based group work, the students can have the dynamic group and friendship groups in class. With development of technology, they can make full use of the online technology to process the learning, which is convenient and law cost.
In general, in class, the children will depend on the ideas of teachers heavily and they think it is important to get identified by the teachers. But in the small or large group communication, the students need to identify their various ideas. Because they do not have the authority professors to solve the issues quickly, which leads to the more discussion. It can push the students to do more researches. Nancy Hulan has identified the concept of peer to peer learning and she thinks the explosive discussion will take place when the answers do not need to be polished (Hulan, 2010). In the group setting, the leadership technology can be gained to help to construct the topics.
Peer-to-peer learning can be regarded as a study way of moving beyond the independent to the interdependent or mutual learning.Compared with the traditional teaching ways, it is in the double-side communication and the learners can take part in the communication more often in order to classify the issues.There are various activities covered by the peer to peer learning and it is not a single educational strategy. But the peer-to-peer learning does not mean to get rid of the control of the teachers. The teachers should play an important role in the independence building. Thus, from the perspective of supervision, it is necessary to enhance the independence of the learnings via the recommendations below.
From the perspective of the benefits, it is necessary to make full use of the benefits of the peer learning (Varmanelson, 2006).It can encourage the behavior independent learning in class and develop the communication including language focused on learning. It can help the students to learn the process of study and personal learning styles. It can also benefit for them to share the thinking.
Secondly, as for the supervision from the teachers, it is necessary to offer the chance of self-supervision. It is depending on building goal and accepting the feedback from others and self-feedback. They can evaluate the use of partnership and the efficient of the plan, which can improve the independence of learning. In this process, the learners can be offered the choice to set their own learning goals. They can master the authority with confidence. In order to enhance the efficiency of teachers’ supervision, the feedback about homework can enhance their independence on learning.
Thirdly, from the perspective of the application, it is necessary to encourage the cooperation and they can complete the high quality tasks and develop their own answers. In order to develop the learning independence, it is about the question to change the responsibility of teachers to the students. Thus, in class, the teachers should come up with the opening question and respond to their issues flexibly.
Fourthly, it is necessary to encourage the students to reflect and a learning diary can be used to track their learning and monitoring. It is also a good way for them to record their path of development.
Bhogal, K. S., Gale, M. J., Hamilton Ii, R. A., Jones, A. R., & O'Connell, B. M. (2016). Peer-to-peer collaboration of publishers in a publish-subscription environment. US, US9246859.
Boud, David, Ed.|Cohen, Ruth, Ed.|Sampson, Jane, Ed. (2001). Peer learning in higher education: learning from & with each other.
Delquadri, J. (1995). Classwide peer tutoring and the prevention of school failure. Preventing School Failure, 39(4), 21-25.
Hulan, N. (2010). What the Students Will Say While the Teacher is Away: An Investigation into Student-Led and Teacher-Led Discussion within Guided Reading Groups. Literacy Teaching and Learning, 14(1-2), 41-64.
J. McLuckie, & K.J. Topping. (2004). Transferable skills for online peer learning. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 29(5), 563-584.
SK Houston, & Anne Lazenbatt. (1999). Peer tutoring in a modelling course. Innovations in Education & Training International, 36(1), 71-79.
Varmanelson, P. (2006). Peer-led team learning. Science Teacher, 68(2), 20-24.